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Function and Operator Overloading
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int a[3]; public: atype(int i, int j, int k) { a[0] = i; a[1] = j; a[2] = k; } int &operator[](int i); }; // Provide range checking for atype int &atype::operator[](int i) { if(i<0 || i> 2) { cout << "Boundary Error\n"; exit(1); } return a[i]; } C++ int main() { atype ob(1, 2, 3); cout << ob[1]; cout << " "; // displays 2
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ob[1] = 25; // [] appears on left cout << ob[1]; // displays 25 ob[3] = 44; // generates runtime error, 3 out-of-range return 0; }
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In this program, when the statement
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ob[3] = 44;
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executes, the boundary error is intercepted by operator[ ]( ), and the program is terminated before any damage can be done (In actual practice, some sort of error-handling function would be called to deal with the out-of-range condition; the program would not have to terminate)
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This chapter concludes by designing and implementing a small string class As you may know, Standard C++ provides a powerful, full-featured string class called string (which is discussed later in this book) The purpose of this chapter is not to develop an alternative to this class Instead, it is give you insight into how any new data type can be easily added and integrated into the C++ environment through the use of operator overloading The creation of a string class is the quintessential example of this process In the past, many programmers honed their object-oriented skills developing their own personal string classes To conclude this chapter, we will do the same Before beginning, it is useful to understand why string classes are important A string class is a useful alternative to the null-terminated strings that are used by C++ by default While it is true that null-terminated strings are powerful, elegant, and efficient, there are many times when you need to use a string but don t need an extremely high level of efficiency In these cases, working with a null-terminated string can be a tiresome chore One of the problems with null-terminated strings is that they are not fully integrated into C++ s type system For example, they cannot be acted upon by operators However, when you create a string class, you can overload the standard operators so that they can also be applied to strings This allow strings to be manipulated using the normal expression syntax To begin, the following class declares the type str_type:
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#include <iostream> #include <cstring> using namespace std;
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class str_type { char string[80]; public: str_type(char *str = "\0") { strcpy(string, str); }
str_type operator+(str_type str); // concatenate str_type operator=(str_type str); // assign // output the string void show_str() { cout << string; } } ;
Here, str_type declares one string in its private portion For the sake of this example, no string can be longer than 80 bytes The class has one constructor function that can be used to initialize the array string with a specific value or assign it a null
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Function and Operator Overloading
string in the absence of any initializer It also declares two overloaded operators that perform concatenation and assignment Finally, it declares the function show_str( ), which outputs string to the screen The overloaded operator functions are shown here:
// Concatenate two strings str_type str_type::operator+(str_type str) { str_type temp; strcpy(tempstring, string); strcat(tempstring, strstring); return temp; } // Assign one string to another str_type str_type::operator=(str_type str) { strcpy(string, strstring); return *this; }
Given these definitions, the following main( ) illustrates their use:
C++ int main() { str_type a("Hello "), b("There"), c; c = a + b; cshow_str(); return 0; }
This program outputs Hello There on the screen It first concatenates a with b and then assigns this value to c Keep in mind that both the = and the + are defined only for objects of type str_type For example, this statement is invalid because it tries to assign object a a null-terminated string:
a = "this is currently wrong";
However, the str_type class can be enhanced to allow such a statement To expand the types of operations supported by the str_type class so that you can assign
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