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swapargs(i, j); // this calls the explicitly overloaded swapargs() swapargs(x, y); // swap floats swapargs(a, b); // swap chars cout << "Swapped i, j: " << i << ' ' << j << endl; cout << "Swapped x, y: " << x << ' ' << y << endl; cout << "Swapped a, b: " << a << ' ' << b << endl; return 0; }
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As the comments indicate, when swapargs(i, j) is called, it invokes the explicitly overloaded version of swapargs( ) defined in the program Thus, the compiler does not generate this version of the generic swapargs( ) function because the generic function is overridden by the explicit overloading Recently, a new-style syntax was introduced to denote the explicit specialization of a function This new method uses the template keyword For example, using the new-style specialization syntax, the overloaded swapargs( ) function from the preceding program looks like this:
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// Use new-style specialization syntax template<> void swapargs<int>(int &a, int &b) { int temp; temp = a; a = b; b = temp; cout << "Inside specialized swapargs(int &, int &)\n"; }
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As you can see, the new-style syntax uses the template<> construct to indicate specialization The type of data for which the specialization is being created is placed inside the angle brackets following the function name This same syntax is used to specialize any type of generic function While there is no advantage to using one specialization syntax over the other, the new-style is probably a better approach for the long term Manual overloading of a template, as shown in this example, allows you to specially tailor a version of a generic function to accommodate a special situation In
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Templates, Exceptions, and RTTI
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general, however, if you need to have different versions of a function for different data types, you should use overloaded functions rather than templates
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In addition to creating explicit, overloaded versions of a generic function, you can also overload the template specification itself To do so, simply create another version of the template that differs from any others in its parameter list For example:
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// Overload a function template declaration #include <iostream> using namespace std; // First version of f() template template <class X> void f(X a) { cout << "Inside f(X a)\n a = " << a << endl; } // Second version of f() template template <class X, class Y> void f(X a, Y b) { cout << "Inside f(X a, Y b)\n a = " << a << "\n b = " << b << endl; } int main() { f(10); // calls f(X) f(10, 20); // calls f(X, Y) return 0; }
Here, the template for f( ) is overloaded to accept either one or two parameters
Generic Function Restrictions
Generic functions are similar to overloaded functions except that they are more restrictive When functions are overloaded, you can have different actions performed
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within the body of each function But a generic function must perform the same general action for all versions only the type of data may differ For example, in the following program, the overloaded functions could not be replaced by a generic function because they do not do the same thing
#include <iostream> #include <cmath> using namespace std; void myfunc(int i) { cout << "value is: " << i << "\n"; } void myfunc(double d) { double intpart; double fracpart; fracpart = modf(d, &intpart); cout << "Fractional part: " << fracpart; cout << "\n"; cout << "Integer part: " << intpart; } int main() { myfunc(1); myfunc(122); return 0; }
Generic Classes
In addition to generic functions, you can also define a generic class When you do this, you create a class that defines all algorithms used by that class, but the actual type of data being manipulated will be specified as a parameter when objects of that class are created Generic classes are useful when a class contains generalizable logic For example, the same algorithm that maintains a queue of integers will also work for a queue of characters Also, the same mechanism that maintains a linked list of mailing addresses will also maintain a linked list of auto part information By using a generic class, you can create a class that will maintain a queue, a linked list, and so on for any type of
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