vb.net generate barcode Templates, Exceptions, and RTTI in Java

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Templates, Exceptions, and RTTI
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This program displays this output:
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Start Caught char * inside Xhandler Caught char * inside main End
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Understanding terminate( ) and unexpected( )
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As mentioned earlier, terminate( ) and unexpected( ) are called when something goes wrong during the exception handling process These functions are supplied by the Standard C++ Library Their prototypes are shown here: void terminate( ); void unexpected( ); These functions require the header <exception> The terminate( ) function is called whenever the exception handling subsystem fails to find a matching catch statement for an exception It is also called if your program attempts to rethrow an exception when no exception was originally thrown The terminate( ) function is also called under various other, more obscure circumstances For example, such a circumstance could occur when, in the process of unwinding the stack because of an exception, a destructor for an object being destroyed throws an exception In general, terminate( ) is the handler of last resort when no other handlers for an exception are available By default, terminate( ) calls abort( ) The unexpected( ) function is called when a function attempts to throw an exception that is not allowed by its throw list By default, unexpected( ) calls terminate( )
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Setting the Terminate and Unexpected Handlers
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The terminate( ) and unexpected( ) functions simply call other functions to actually handle an error As just explained, by default terminate( ) calls abort( ), and unexpected( ) calls terminate( ) Thus, by default, both functions halt program execution when an exception handling error occurs However, you can change the functions that are called by terminate( ) and unexpected( ) Doing so allows your program to take full control of the exception handling subsystem To change the terminate handler, use set_terminate( ), shown here: terminate_handler set_terminate(terminate_handler newhandler); Here, newhandler is a pointer to the new terminate handler The function returns a pointer to the old terminate handler The new terminate handler must be of type terminate_handler, which is defined like this: typedef void (*terminate_handler) ( );
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The only thing that your terminate handler must do is stop program execution It must not return to the program or resume it in any way To change the unexpected handler, use set_unexpected( ), as shown here: unexpected_handler set_unexpected(unexpected_handler newhandler); Here, newhandler is a pointer to the new unexpected handler The function returns a pointer to the old unexpected handler The new unexpected handler must be of type unexpected_handler, which is defined like this: typedef void (*unexpected_handler) ( ); This handler may itself throw an exception, stop the program, or call terminate( ) However, it must not return to the program Both set_terminate( ) and set_unexpected( ) require the header <exception> Here is an example that defines its own terminate( ) handler
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// Set a new terminate handler #include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> #include <exception> using namespace std; void my_Thandler() { cout << "Inside new terminate handler\n"; abort(); } int main() { // set a new terminate handler set_terminate(my_Thandler); try { cout << "Inside try block\n"; throw 100; // throw an error } catch (double i) { // won't catch an int exception // } return 0; }
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Templates, Exceptions, and RTTI
The output from this program is shown here
Inside try block Inside new terminate handler Abnormal program termination
The uncaught_exception( ) Function
The C++ exception handling subsystem supplies one other function that you may find useful: uncaught_exception( ) Its prototype is shown here: bool uncaught_exception( ); This function returns true if an exception has been thrown but not yet caught Once caught, the function returns false
Applying Exception Handling
Exception handling is designed to provide a structured means by which your program can handle abnormal events This implies that the error handler must do something rational when an error occurs For example, consider the following simple program It inputs two numbers and divides the first by the second It uses exception handling to manage a divide-by-zero error
#include <iostream> using namespace std; void divide(double a, double b); int main() { double i, j; do { cout << "Enter numerator (0 to stop): "; cin >> i; cout << "Enter denominator: "; cin >> j; divide(i, j); } while(i != 0); C++
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