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Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
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return 0; }
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In this version, c is now a pointer to an object of type myclass, and the ->* operator is used to access sum and sum_it( )
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Creating Conversion Functions
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Sometimes you will create a class that you want to be able to freely mix in an expression with other types of data While overloaded operator functions can provide a means of mixing types, sometimes a simple conversion is all that you want In these cases, you can use a type conversion function to convert your class into a type compatible with that of the rest of the expression The general form of a type conversion function is operator type ( ) {return value ;} Here, type is the target type that you are converting your class to and value is the value of the class after conversion A conversion function must be a member of the class for which it is defined To illustrate how to create a conversion function, let s use the three_d class once again Suppose you want to be able to convert an object of type three_d into an integer so that it can be used in an integer expression Further, the conversion will take place by using the product of the three dimensions To accomplish this, you use a conversion function that looks like this:
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operator int() { return x * y * z; }
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Here is a program that illustrates how the conversion function works:
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; class three_d { int x, y, z; // 3-d coordinates public: three_d(int a, int b, int c) { x=a; y=b, z=c; }
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Miscellaneous C++ Topics
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three_d operator+(three_d op2) ; friend ostream &operator<<(ostream &stream, three_d &obj); operator int() { return x*y*z; } } ; // Display X, Y, Z coordinates - three_d inserter ostream &operator<<(ostream &stream, three_d &obj) { stream << objx << ", "; stream << objy << ", "; stream << objz << "\n"; return stream; // return the stream } three_d three_d::operator+(three_d op2) { three_d temp(0, 0, 0); tempx tempy tempz return } int main() { three_d a(1, 2, 3), b(2, 3, 4), c(0, 0, 0); cout << a << b; cout << b+100; // displays 124 because of conversion to int cout << "\n"; c = a+b; // adds two objects cout << c; return 0; } = x+op2x; = y+op2y; = z+op2z; temp; // these are integer additions // and the + retains its original // meaning relative to them
Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
This program displays the output
1, 2, 3 2, 3, 4 124 3, 5, 7
As the program illustrates, when a three_d object is used in an integer expression, such as cout << b+100, the conversion function is applied to the object In this specific case, the conversion function returns the value 24, which is then added to 100 However, when no conversion is needed, as in c = a+b, the conversion function is not called Remember that you can create different conversion functions to meet different needs You could define one that converts to double or long, for example Each is applied automatically
Copy Constructors
By default, when one object is used to initialize another, C++ performs a bitwise copy That is, an identical copy of the initializing object is created in the target object Although this is perfectly adequate for many cases and generally exactly what you want to happen there are situations in which a bitwise copy cannot be used One of the most common situations in which you must avoid a bitwise copy is when an object allocates memory when it is created For example, assume two objects, A and B, of the same class called ClassType, which allocates memory when creating objects, and assume that A is already in existence This means that A has already allocated its memory Further, assume that A is used to initialize B, as shown here ClassType B = A; If a bitwise copy is performed, then B will be an exact copy of A This means that B will be using the same piece of allocated memory that A is using, instead of allocating its own Clearly, this is not the desired outcome For example, if ClassType includes a destructor that frees the memory, then the same piece of memory will be freed twice when A and B are destroyed! The same type of problem can occur in two additional ways: first, when a copy of an object is made when it is passed as an argument to a function; and second, when a temporary object is created as a return value from a function (Remember, temporary objects are automatically created to hold the return value of a function, and they may also be created in certain other circumstances)
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