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Accessing a Vector Through an Iterator
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As you know, arrays and pointers are tightly linked in C++ An array can be accessed either through subscripting or through a pointer The parallel to this in the STL is
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the link between vectors and iterators You can access the members of a vector using subscripting or through the use of an iterator The following example shows how
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// Access the elements of a vector through an iterator #include <iostream> #include <vector> #include <cctype> using namespace std; int main() { vector<char> v(10); // create a vector of length 10 vector<char>::iterator p; // create an iterator int i; // assign elements in vector a value p = vbegin(); i = 0; while(p != vend()) { *p = i + 'a'; p++; i++; } // display contents of vector cout << "Original contents:\n"; p = vbegin(); while(p != vend()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } cout << "\n\n"; // change contents of vector p = vbegin(); while(p != vend()) { *p = toupper(*p); p++; } // display contents of vector cout << "Modified Contents:\n";
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The Standard Template Library and the string Class
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p = vbegin(); while(p != vend()) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } cout << endl; return 0; }
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The output from this program is:
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Original contents: a b c d e f g h i j Modified Contents: A B C D E F G H I J
In the program, notice how the iterator p is declared The type iterator is defined by the container classes Thus, to obtain an iterator for a particular container, you will use a declaration similar that shown in the example: simply qualify iterator with the name of the container In the program, p is initialized to point to the start of the vector by using the begin( ) member function This function returns an iterator to the start of the vector This iterator can then be used to access the vector one element at a time by incrementing it as needed This process is directly parallel to the way a pointer can be used to access the elements of an array To determine when the end of the vector has been reached, the end( ) member function is employed This function returns an iterator to the location that is one past the last element in the vector Thus, when p equals vend( ), the end of the vector has been reached
Inserting and Deleting Elements in a Vector
In addition to putting new values on the end of a vector, you can insert elements into the middle using the insert( ) function You can also remove elements using erase( ) The following program demonstrates insert( ) and erase( )
// Demonstrate insert and erase #include <iostream> #include <vector> using namespace std;
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int main() { vector<char> vector<char> char str[] = unsigned int
v(10); v2; "<Vector>"; i;
// initialize v for(i=0; i<10; i++) v[i] = i + 'a'; // copy characters in str into v2 for(i=0; str[i]; i++) v2push_back(str[i]); // display original contents of vector cout << "Original contents of v:\n"; for(i=0; i<vsize(); i++) cout << v[i] << " "; cout << "\n\n"; vector<char>::iterator p = vbegin(); p += 2; // point to 3rd element // insert 10 X's into v vinsert(p, 10, 'X'); // display contents after insertion cout << "Size after inserting X's = " << vsize() << endl; cout << "Contents after insert:\n"; for(i=0; i<vsize(); i++) cout << v[i] << " "; cout << "\n\n"; // remove those elements p = vbegin(); p += 2; // point to 3rd element verase(p, p+10); // remove next 10 elements // display contents after deletion cout << "Size after erase = " << vsize() << endl; cout << "Contents after erase:\n"; for(i=0; i<vsize(); i++) cout << v[i] << " "; cout << "\n\n";
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The Standard Template Library and the string Class
// Insert v2 into v vinsert(p, v2begin(), v2end()); cout << "Size after v2's insertion = "; cout << vsize() << endl; cout << "Contents after insert:\n"; for(i=0; i<vsize(); i++) cout << v[i] << " "; cout << endl; return 0; }
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