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As a general rule, a function call cannot be on the left side of an assignment A statement such as
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swap(x, y) = 100; /* incorrect statement */
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is wrong C++ Builder will flag it as an error and will not compile a program that contains it If a function is declared as void, it cannot be used in any expression For example, assume that f( ) is declared as void The following statements will not compile:
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t = f(); f()+f(); /* no value to assign to t */ /* no value to add */
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When you write programs, your functions will be of three types The first type is simply computational These functions are specifically designed to perform operations on their arguments and return a value based on that operation A computational function is a pure function Examples are the standard library functions sqrt( ) and sin( ), which compute the square root and sine of their arguments The second type of function manipulates information and returns a value that simply indicates the success or failure of that manipulation An example is the library function fwrite( ), which writes information to a disk file If the write operation is successful, fwrite( ) returns the number of items successfully written If an error occurs, fwrite( ) returns a number that is not equal to the number of items it was requested to write The last type of function has no explicit return value In essence, the function is strictly procedural and produces no value An example is srand( ), which initializes the random number generator function rand( ) Sometimes, functions that really don t produce an interesting result often return something anyway For example, printf( ) returns the number of characters written Yet, it is unusual to find a program that actually checks this In other words, although all functions, except those of type void, return values, you don t have to use the return value for anything A common question concerning function return values is, Don t I have to assign this value to some variable since a value is being returned The answer is no If there is no assignment specified, the return value is simply discarded Consider the following program, which uses mul( ):
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#include <stdioh> int mul(int a, int b);
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Functions
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int main(void) { int x, y, z; x = 10; y = 20; z = mul(x, y); printf("%d", mul(x, y)); mul(x, y); return 0; } int mul(int a, int b) { return a*b; }
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THE FOUNDATION OF C++
/* 1 */ /* 2 */ /* 3 */
In line 1, the return value of mul( ) is assigned to z In line 2, the return value is not actually assigned, but it is used by the printf( ) function Finally, in line 3, the return value is lost because it is neither assigned to another variable nor used as part of an expression
What Does main() Return
The main( ) function returns an integer to the calling process, which is generally the operating system Returning a value from main( ) is the equivalent of calling exit( ) with the same value A return value of 0 indicates that the program terminated normally All other values indicate that some error occurred with the exiting program
Understanding the Scope of a Function
The scope rules of a language are the rules that govern whether a piece of code knows about or has access to another piece of code or data Each function is a discrete block of code Thus, a function defines a block scope This means that a function s code is private to that function and cannot be accessed by any statement in any other function except through a call to that function (For instance, you cannot use goto to jump into the middle of another function) The code that makes up the body of a function is hidden from the rest of the program, and unless it uses global variables, it can neither affect nor be affected by other parts of the program Stated another way, the code and data defined within one function cannot interact with the code and data defined in another function because the two functions have different scopes
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