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As you create programs, you must always weigh the cost of functions in terms of execution time against the benefits of increased readability and modifiability In C++, the concept of inline functions is expanded and formalized In fact, inline functions are an important component of the C++ language
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Arrays
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Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
n array is a collection of variables of the same type that are referenced by a common name A specific element in an array is accessed by an index In C/C++ all arrays consist of contiguous memory locations The lowest address corresponds to the first element; the highest address corresponds to the last element Arrays can have from one to several dimensions The most common array is the nullterminated string, which is simply an array of characters terminated by a null Arrays and pointers are closely related; a discussion of one usually refers to the other This chapter focuses on arrays, while 6 looks closely at pointers You should read both to understand fully these important constructs
Single-Dimension Arrays
The general form of a single-dimension array declaration is type var_name[size]; Like other variables, arrays must be explicitly declared so that the compiler can allocate space for them in memory Here, type declares the base type of the array, which is the type of each element in the array size defines how many elements the array will hold and must be a positive integer For a single-dimension array, the total size of an array in bytes is computed as shown here: total bytes = sizeof(base type) * number of elements All arrays have 0 as the index of their first element Therefore, when you write
char p[10];
you are declaring a character array that has 10 elements, p[0] through p[9] For example, the following program loads an integer array with the numbers 0 through 9 and displays them:
#include <stdioh> int main(void) { int x[10]; /* this reserves 10 integer elements */ int t;
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Arrays
for(t=0; t<10; ++t) x[t] = t; THE FOUNDATION OF C++ for(t=0; t<10; ++t) printf("%d ", x[t]); return 0; }
C/C++ has no bounds checking on arrays You could overwrite either end of an array and write into some other variable s data, or even into the program s code It is the programmer s job to provide bounds checking where needed For example, make certain that the character arrays that accept character input are long enough to accept the longest input Single-dimension arrays are essentially lists of information of the same type For example, Figure 5-1 shows how array a appears in memory if it is declared as shown here and starts at memory location 1000:
char a[7];
Generating a Pointer to an Array
You can generate a pointer to the first element of an array by simply specifying the array name, without any index For example, given
int sample[10];
you can generate a pointer to the first element by using the name sample Thus, the following code fragment assigns p the address of the first element of sample:
int *p; int sample[10]; p = sample;
You can also obtain the address of the first element of an array using the & operator For example, sample and &sample[0] both produce the same results However, in professionally written C/C++ code, you will almost never see &sample[0]
Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
Figure 5-1
A seven-element character array beginning at location 1000
Passing Single-Dimension Arrays to Functions
When passing single-dimension arrays to functions, call the function with just the array name (no index) This passes the address of the first element of the array to the function It is not possible to pass the entire array as an argument; a pointer is automatically passed instead For example, the following program fragment passes the address of i to func1( ):
int main(void) { int i[10]; func1(i); /* */ return 0; }
If a function is to receive a single-dimension array, you may declare the formal parameter as a pointer, as a sized array, or as an unsized array For example, to receive i into a function called func1( ), you could declare func1( ) as
void func1(int *a) { /**/ } /* pointer */
void func1(int a[10]) /* sized array */ { /**/ }
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