vb.net generate qr barcode Like all array variables, arrays of structures begin indexing at 0 in Java

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Like all array variables, arrays of structures begin indexing at 0
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An Inventory Example
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To help illustrate how structures and arrays of structures are used, consider a simple inventory program that uses an array of structures to hold the inventory information The functions in this program interact with structures and their members in various ways to illustrate structure usage In this example, the information to be stored includes I item name I cost I number on hand You can define the basic data structure, called inv, to hold this information as
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#define MAX 100 struct inv { char item[30]; float cost; int on_hand; } inv_info[MAX];
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In the inv structure, item is used to hold each inventoried item s name The cost member contains the item s cost, and on_hand represents the number of items currently available
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Structures, Unions, and User-Defined Types
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The first function needed for the program is main( )
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THE FOUNDATION OF C++ int main(void) { char choice; init_list(); /* initialize the structure array */ for(;;) { choice = menu_select(); switch(choice) { case 1: enter(); break; case 2: del(); break; case 3: list(); break; case 4: return 0; } } }
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In main( ), the call to init_list( ) prepares the structure array for use by putting a null character into the first byte of each item field The program assumes that a structure is not in use if the item field is empty The init_list( ) function is defined as follows
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/* Initialize the structure array */ void init_list(void) { register int t; for(t=0; t<MAX; ++t) inv_info[t]item[0] = '\0'; }
The menu_select( ) function displays the option messages and returns the user s selection:
/* Input the user's selection */ int menu_select(void) { char s[80]; int c;
Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
printf("\n"); printf("1 Enter an item\n"); printf("2 Remove an item\n"); printf("3 List the inventory\n"); printf("4 Quit\n"); do { printf("\nEnter your choice: "); gets(s); c = atoi(s); } while(c<0 || c>4); return c; }
The enter( ) function prompts the user for input and places the information entered into the next free structure If the array is full, the message List Full is printed on the screen The function find_free( ) searches the structure array for an unused element
/* Input the inventory information */ void enter(void) { int slot; slot = find_free(); if(slot == -1) { printf("\nList Full"); return; }
printf("Enter item: "); gets(inv_info[slot]item); printf("Enter cost: "); scanf("%f", &inv_info[slot]cost); printf("Enter number on hand: "); scanf("%d%*c",&inv_info[slot]on_hand); } /* Return the index of the first unused array location or -1 if no free locations exist */ int find_free(void) {
AM FL Y
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Structures, Unions, and User-Defined Types
register int t; THE FOUNDATION OF C++ for(t=0; inv_info[t]item[0] && t<MAX; ++t) ; if(t == MAX) return -1; /* no slots free */ return t; }
Notice that find_free( ) returns a 1 if every structure array variable is in use This is a safe number to use because there cannot be a 1 element of the inv_info array The del( ) function requires the user to specify the number of the item that needs to be deleted The function then puts a null character in the first character position of the item field
/* Remove an item from the list */ void del(void) { register int slot; char s[80]; printf("enter record #: "); gets(s); slot = atoi(s); if(slot >= 0 && slot < MAX) inv_info[slot]item[0] = '\0'; }
The final function the program needs is list( ) It prints the entire inventory list on the screen
/* Display the list on the screen */ void list(void) { register int t; for(t=0; t<MAX; ++t) { if(inv_info[t]item[0]) { printf("Item: %s\n", inv_info[t]item); printf("Cost: %f\n", inv_info[t]cost); printf("On hand: %d\n\n", inv_info[t]on_hand); } } printf("\n\n"); }
Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
The complete listing for the inventory program is shown here If you have any doubts about your understanding of structures, you should enter this program into your computer and study its execution by making changes and watching their effects
/* A simple inventory program using an array of structures */ #include <stdioh> #include <stdlibh> #define MAX 100 struct inv { char item[30]; float cost; int on_hand; } inv_info[MAX]; void init_list(void), list(void), del(void); void enter(void); int menu_select(void), find_free(void); int main(void) { char choice; init_list(); /* initialize the structure array */ for(;;) { choice = menu_select(); switch(choice) { case 1: enter(); break; case 2: del(); break; case 3: list(); break; case 4: return 0; } } } /* Initialize the structure array */ void init_list(void)
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