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Variables, Constants, Operators, and Expressions
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ANSI/ISO C99 added three more data types to the five basic types just listed: _Bool, _Complex, and _Imaginary, but these are not part of the C subset of C++ C supports several aggregate types, including structures, unions, bit fields, enumerations, and user-defined types These complex types are discussed in 7
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THE FOUNDATION OF C++
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Type Modifiers
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Except type void, the basic data types may have various modifiers preceding them A type modifier is used to alter the meaning of the base type to fit the needs of various situations more precisely The list of modifiers is shown here: signed unsigned long short The modifiers signed, unsigned, long, and short can be applied to integer base types The character base type can be modified by unsigned and signed You can also apply long to double Table 2-1 shows all valid data types, along with their bit widths and ranges as implemented by C++ Builder The use of signed on integers is redundant (but allowed) because the default integer declaration assumes a signed number The difference between signed and unsigned integers lies in the way the high-order bit of the integer is interpreted If a signed integer is specified, then the compiler will generate code that assumes the high-order bit of an integer is to be used as a sign flag If the sign bit is 0, then the number is positive; if it is 1, then the number is negative Here is an overly simplified example: 127 in binary is 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 127 in binary is 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 sign bit The reader is cautioned that virtually all computers (including those that run C++ Builder) use two s complement arithmetic, which will cause the representation of 127 to appear different than the simplified example just shown However, the use of the sign bit is the same To form the negative of a number in two s complement form, reverse all bits and add one to the number For example, 127 in two s complement appears like this: 11111111 10000001
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Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
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char unsigned char signed char int unsigned int signed int short int unsigned short int signed short int long int unsigned long int signed long int float double long double Table 2-1
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8 8 8 32 32 32 16 16 16 32 32 32 32 64 80
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Range
128 to 127 0 to 255 128 to 127 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 0 to 4,294,967,295 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 32,768 to 32,767 0 to 65,535 32,768 to 32,767 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 0 to 4,294,967,295 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 118E 38 to 340E+38 223E 308 to 179E+308 337E 4932 to 118E+4932
The C Data Types as Implemented by C++ Builder
Signed integers are important for a great many algorithms, but they have only half the absolute magnitude of their unsigned relatives For example, here is 32,767: 01111111 11111111 If the high-order bit were set to 1, the number would then be interpreted as 1 However, if you had declared this to be unsigned, then when the high-order bit is set to 1, the number becomes 65,535
2:
Variables, Constants, Operators, and Expressions
Access Modifiers
C/C++ has two type modifiers that are used to control the ways in which variables may be accessed or modified These modifiers are called const and volatile Variables of type const may not be changed during execution by your program For example,
const int a;
THE FOUNDATION OF C++
will create an integer variable called a that cannot be modified by your program It can, however, be used in other types of expressions A const variable will receive its value either from an explicit initialization or by some hardware-dependent means For example, this gives count the value of 100:
const int count = 100;
Aside from initialization, no const variable can be modified by your program The modifier volatile is used to tell the compiler that a variable s value can be changed in ways not explicitly specified by the program For example, a global variable s address can be passed to the clock routine of the operating system and used to hold the time of the system In this situation, the contents of the variable are altered without any explicit assignment statements in the program This is important because C automatically optimizes certain expressions by making the assumption that the content of a variable is unchanging inside that expression Also, some optimizations may change the order of evaluation of an expression during the compilation process The volatile modifier prevents these changes from occurring It is possible to use const and volatile together For example, if 0x30 is assumed to be the address of a port that is changed by external conditions only, then the following declaration is precisely what you would want to prevent any possibility of accidental side effects:
const volatile unsigned char *port = (const volatile char *) 0x30;
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