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In C, a file is a logical concept that can be applied to everything from disk files to terminals or printers You associate a stream with a specific file by performing an open operation Once a file is open, information can be exchanged between it and your program Not all files have the same capabilities For example, a disk file can support random access, while some printers cannot This illustrates an important point about the C I/O system: All streams are the same, but all files are not If the file can support random access (also called position requests), opening that file initializes the file position indicator to the start of the file As each character is read from or written to the file, the position indicator is incremented, ensuring progression through the file The smallest accessible portion of a disk is a sector Information is written to or read from a disk one sector at a time Thus, even if your program only needs a single byte of data, an entire sector of data will be read This data is put into a region of memory called a buffer until it can be used by your program When data is output to a disk file, it is buffered until a full sector s worth of information has been accumulated, at which point it is actually physically written to the file You disassociate a file from a specific stream using a close operation Closing a stream causes any contents of its associated buffer to be written to the external device (it will be padded, if necessary, to fill out a complete sector) This process, generally called flushing the buffer, guarantees that no information is accidentally left in the disk buffer All files are closed automatically when your program terminates normally by main( ) returning to the operating system or by calling exit( ) However, it is better to actually close a file using fclose( ) as soon as it is no longer needed because several events can prevent the buffer from being written to the disk file For example, files are not written if a program terminates through a call to abort( ), if it crashes, or if the user turns the computer off before terminating the program At the beginning of a program s execution five predefined text streams are opened They are stdin, stdout, stderr, stdaux, and stdprn, and they refer to the standard I/O devices connected to the system, as shown here:
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The first three streams are defined by ANSI/ISO Standard C, and any code that uses them is fully portable The last two are specific to C++ Builder and may not be portable to other compilers Most operating systems allow I/O redirection, so routines that read or write to these streams can be redirected to other devices (Redirection of I/O is the process whereby information that would normally go to one device is rerouted to another device by the operating system) You should never try explicitly to open or close these files Each stream that is associated with a file has a file control structure of type FILE This structure is defined in the header <stdioh> You must not make modifications to this structure If you are new to programming, C s separation of streams and files may seem unnecessary or contrived Just remember that its main purpose is to provide a consistent interface In C, you need only think in terms of streams and use only one file system to accomplish all I/O operations The C I/O system automatically converts the raw input or output from each device into an easily managed stream The remainder of this chapter discusses the Standard C I/O system It does so by dividing it into two parts: console I/O and file I/O As you will see, these are different sides of the same coin However, this somewhat artificial distinction makes it easier to discuss them
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