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Declaration of Variables
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As you probably know, a variable is a named location in memory that is used to hold a value that can be modified by the program All variables must be declared before they are used The general form of a declaration is shown here: type variable_list;
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Here, type must be a valid C data type and variable_list may consist of one or more identifier names with comma separators Some declarations are shown here:
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int i, j, l; short int si; unsigned int ui; double balance, profit, loss;
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Remember, the name of a variable has nothing to do with its type There are three basic places where variables can be declared: inside functions, in the definition of function parameters, or outside all functions These variables are called local variables, formal parameters, and global variables, respectively
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Variables that are declared inside a function are called local variables In some literature, these variables may be referred to as automatic variables in keeping with the use of the (optional) keyword auto that can be used to declare them Since the term local variable is more commonly used, this guide will continue to use it Local variables can be referenced only by statements that are inside the block in which the variables are declared Stated another way, local variables are not known outside their own code block You should remember that a block of code is begun when an opening curly brace is encountered and terminated when a closing curly brace is found One of the most important things to understand about local variables is that they exist only while the block of code in which they are declared is executing That is, a local variable is created upon entry into its block and destroyed upon exit The most common code block in which local variables are declared is the function For example, consider these two functions:
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void func1(void) { int x; x = 10; } void func2(void) { int x; x = -199; }
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Variables, Constants, Operators, and Expressions
The integer variable x was declared twice, once in func1( ) and once in func2( ) The x in func1( ) has no bearing on, or relationship to, the x in func2( ) because each x is only known to the code within the same block as the variable s declaration The C language contains the keyword auto, which can be used to declare local variables However, since all nonglobal variables are assumed to be auto by default, it is virtually never used and the examples in this book will not use it (It has been said that auto was included in C to provide for source-level compatibility with its predecessor, B Further, auto is supported in C++ to provide compatibility with C) It is common practice to declare all variables needed within a function at the start of that function s code block This is done mostly to make it easy for anyone reading the code to know what variables are used However, it is not necessary to do this because local variables can be declared within any code block To understand how this works, consider the following function:
void f(void) { int t; scanf("%d", &t); if(t==1) { char s[80]; /* s exists only inside this block */ printf("enter name:"); gets(s); process(s); } /* s is not known here */ }
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Here, the local variable s is created upon entry into the if code block and destroyed upon exit Since s is known only within the if block, it may not be referenced elsewhere not even in other parts of the function that contains it There is one small restriction that you must observe when declaring local variables when using C if you want the widest portability: they must be declared at the start of a block, prior to any action statements This restriction does not apply to C++ One reason you might want to declare a variable within its own block, instead of at the top of a function, is to prevent its accidental misuse elsewhere in the function In essence, declaring variables inside the blocks of code that actually use them allows you to compartmentalize your code and data into more easily managed units Because local variables are destroyed upon exit from the function in which they are declared, they cannot retain their values between function calls (As you will see shortly, however, it is possible to direct the compiler to retain their values through the use of the static modifier)
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