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Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
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and has several routines that access that array Instead of hard-coding the array s size with a constant, you can define a name that represents the size and use that name whenever the size of the array is needed This way, if you need to change the size of the array, you will only need to change the #define statement and then recompile All uses of the name will automatically be updated For example:
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#define MAX_SIZE 100 /* */ float balance[MAX_SIZE]; /* */ float temp[MAX_SIZE];
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To change the size of both arrays, simply change the definition of MAX_SIZE and recompile The #define directive has another powerful feature: the macro name can have arguments Each time the macro name is encountered, the arguments used in its definition are replaced by the actual arguments found in the program This type of macro is called a function-like macro For example:
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#include <stdioh> #define MIN(a,b) int main(void) { int x, y; x = 10; y = 20; printf("The minimum is: %d", MIN(x, y)); return 0; } ((a)<(b)) (a) : (b)
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When this program is compiled, the expression defined by MIN(a,b) is substituted, except that x and y are used as the operands That is, the printf( ) statement looks like this after the substitution:
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printf("The minimum is: %d",((x)<(y)) (x) : (y));
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The Preprocessor and Comments
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Be very careful how you define macros that take arguments; otherwise, there can be some surprising results For example, examine this short program, which uses a macro to determine whether a value is even or odd:
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/* This program will give the wrong answer */ #include <stdioh> #define EVEN(a) a%2==0 1 : 0 int main(void) { if(EVEN(9+1)) printf("is even"); else printf("is odd"); return 0; }
THE FOUNDATION OF C++
This program will not work correctly because of the way the macro substitution is made When C++ Builder compiles this program, the EVEN(9+1) is expanded to
9+1%2==0 1 : 0
As you may recall, the % (modulus) operator has higher precedence than the plus operator This means that the % operation is first performed on the 1 and that result is added to 9, which (of course) does not equal 0 To fix the trouble, there must be parentheses around a in the macro definition of EVEN, as shown in this corrected version of the program:
#include <stdioh> #define EVEN(a) (a)%2==0 1 : 0 int main(void) { if(EVEN(9+1)) printf("is even"); else printf("is odd"); return 0; }
Borland C++ Builder: The Complete Reference
Now, the 9+1 is evaluated prior to the modulus operation In general, it is a good idea to surround macro parameters with parentheses to avoid troubles like the one just described The use of macro substitutions in place of real functions has one major benefit: it increases the execution speed of the code because there is no function call overhead However, if the size of the macro is very large, this increased speed may be paid for with an increase in the size of the program because of duplicated code Although parameterized macros are a valuable feature, you will see in Part Three that C++ has a better way of creating in-line code that does not rely upon macros
#error
The #error directive forces the compiler to stop compilation It is used primarily for debugging The general form of the directive is #error error-message
Fatal: filename linenum: Error directive: error-message
Here, filename is the name of the file in which the #error directive was found, linenum is the line number of the directive, and error-message is the message, itself
#include
The #include directive tells the compiler to read another source file in addition to the one that contains the #include directive The name of the additional source file must be enclosed between double quotes or angle brackets For example, these two directives both instruct the compiler to read and compile the header for the standard I/O library functions:
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