Managing Access and Prioritizing Traffic in .NET

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Managing Access and Prioritizing Traffic
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One of the great advantages that VoIP offers is the capability to use a single network to support a wide range of applications, including data, voice, and video A single multifunctional network, as opposed to multiple discreet networks, means lower capital cost and lower operating cost A single network does, however, introduce certain challenges Because of the fact that voice and data have different quality requirements, as described earlier, it is important that they are not treated the same way within the network For example, it is critical to make sure voice packets are not waiting in a queue somewhere while a large file transfer is occupying network bandwidth The fundamental difference between different types of traffic translates to a number of network requirements First, it is necessary that a voice call not be connected if not enough network resources are available to handle the call The last thing that we want is to answer the phone and find that conversation is not possible because not enough bandwidth is available Therefore, it is necessary to ensure up front that sufficient bandwidth exists before any phone rings Secondly, different types of traffic must be handled in the network in different ways It is necessary to prioritize certain types of traffic to ensure
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Introduction
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1
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that the most critical traffic is least effected by network congestion In practical terms, if a network becomes heavily loaded, e-mail traffic should feel the effects before synchronous traffic (such as voice) Managing and prioritizing traffic as well as minimizing packet loss, delay, and jitter all fall into the realm of QoS This is an area of development within the IP community that has seen a huge effort in recent times 8, Quality of Service, describes a number of solutions for QoS in IP networks
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Speech-Coding Techniques
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Yet another factor in high-quality voice is the choice of speech-coding technique It is all very well to reduce bandwidth, minimize delay, and minimize packet loss However, that is not much good if the speech still sounds tinny or synthetic Consequently, we need to select a solution that reduces bandwidth while maintaining natural-sounding speech In general, coding techniques are such that speech quality degrades as bandwidth reduces However, the relationship is not linear, so it is possible to significantly reduce bandwidth at the cost of only a small degradation in quality In general, the objective is to offer, or at least approach, toll-quality voice, where toll quality relates to an MOS of 40 or better on the ITU-T Recommendation P800 scale listed earlier in the chapter Table 1-1 shows MOS values for several common coding schemes Although concepts like good and fair do not sound very scientific, they are not quite as nebulous as they might first appear The ratings can be considered a summation of various quality parameters such as delay, jitter, echo, noise, crosstalk, intelligibility, and overall lack of distortion The man-
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Speech coder
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Bit rate (Kbps) 64 32 63 16 8
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MOS 43 40 38 39 40
Common speech coder bit rates and MOSs
G711 G726 G723 (celp) G728 G729
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Introduction
Introduction
ner in which various coders are tested and the scoring methodology behind it are well standardized to the extent that the MOS scale is the most common standard for voice-quality measurement today Nonetheless, MOS values are still subjective in nature Therefore, regardless of how well tests are carried out, the subjective character of the evaluation means that one might find slightly different ratings for a given coding scheme The variations may depend on the details of the test environment and the individual test participants Therefore, anyone who intends to deploy VoIP should perform his or her own analysis of the available speech coders in a test environment that closely matches the expected network conditions 3 provides details regarding voice-coding technologies
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