PSTN Interworking in .NET framework

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PSTN Interworking
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For interworking with the PSTN, gateways will be required to provide the conversion from circuit-switched media to the packet and vice versa In fact, we have already seen that the H323 architecture places great emphasis on the role of gateways Not only must there be media interworking, but there must also be signaling interworking After all, SIP is a signaling protocol If calls are to be established between a SIP-based network and the PSTN, then the SIP network must be able to communicate with the PSTN according to the signaling protocol used in the PSTN In most cases, this protocol is SS7 For the establishment, maintenance, and teardown of speech calls, the applicable SS7 protocol is the ISDN User Part (ISUP) The usage of gateways and the control of those gateways in a SIP-based network are discussed in some detail in 6 Furthermore, interworking with the PSTN through the use of signaling gateways is discussed in detail in 7 For the moment, however, it is sufficient to assume
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The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
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The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
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that a gateway entity exists on the network for interworking between SIP and the PSTN Let us call that entity a network gateway (NGW) In such a case, let us consider a call from Manager (at work) to Collins (at home), where Collins has a standard residential phone connected to a PSTN switch Such a scenario would appear as in Figure 5-27 Note that most of the fields within the SIP messages and responses are omitted to avoid clutter Recall that SIP enables a SIP URI to have the form of a telephone number The INVITE includes such a URI in the To: field, which is mapped to the calling party number of the initial address message (IAM) The From: field of the INVITE could also have a URI in the form of a telephone for the calling party This would enable the called party to still avail itself of the PSTN Caller-ID service The PSTN switch responds with an ACM, which is mapped to the SIP 183 (session progress) response This response contains a session description and enables in-band information to be returned from the called switch to the SIP caller Once the call is answered, an ISUP ANM is returned, which is mapped to the 200 (OK) response This response will have an updated session description, since the session description in the 183 response is considered temporary and is part of an early dialog If the call were to be in the opposite direction, from the PSTN to a SIP user, then it would appear as in Figure 5-28 In this case, the 180 ringing response is used instead of the 183 session progress response, but this is for example purposes only In this example, the 180 ringing response is used by the NGW to trigger a ringing tone towards the calling party locally Alternatively, the called SIP user agent might return a 183 (session progress) response, with an early media description (such as a ringing tone) to be played to the caller As is the case in the previous example, not every field is shown for the SIP messages and responses in Figure 5-28 Furthermore, for the avoidance of clutter, the usage of reliable signaling for SIP provisional responses is not shown in either example It can be assumed that the reliability of these responses would be applied, so that PRACK methods and corresponding 200 (OK) responses would occur Although these two interworking examples might seem quite straightforward, seamless interworking between two different protocols is not often quite that easy, because rarely does a one-to-one mapping of messages and parameters take place between one protocol and the other Sometimes the mapping from protocol A to B means that what is sent in protocol B is only an approximation of what was received in protocol A If dual interworking is used (from protocol A to protocol B and back to protocol A), what comes out at one end may not be the same as what went in at the other end Given
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
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