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VoIP and SS7
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Message Signal Units (MSUs)
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As mentioned, the messages that are sent in the SS7 signaling network are known as MSUs Each MSU has the format shown in Figure 7-6 The Service Information Octet (SIO) contains the service indicator, which indicates the upper-level protocol to which the message applies (such as SCCP or ISUP) The SIO also contains the Subservice field, which indicates the signaling numbering plan in use We will discuss this topic in more detail shortly The Signaling Information Field (SIF) contains the actual user information being sent If we look at the details of the SIF, then an MSU has one of the formats shown in Figure 7-7, depending on whether the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) version of SS7 or the International Telecommunication Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T) version of SS7 is being used Of particular importance is the routing label, which contains two very important fields: the destination point code (DPC) and the origination point code (OPC) These are the signaling addresses of the
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Figure 7-6 SS7 messages
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Fill-in Signal Unit (FISU)
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8 Flag 7 BSN 1 B I B 7 FSN 1 F I B 6 LI 2 Spare 16 CRC (Length in bits)
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Transmission direction
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Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU)
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8 Flag 7 BSN 1 B I B 7 FSN 1 F I B 6 LI 2 Spare 8 or 16 Status 16 CRC (Length in bits)
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Transmission direction
Message Signal Unit (MSU)
8 Flag 7 BSN 1 B I B 7 FSN 1 F I B 6 LI 2 Spare 8 SIO 8n SIF (2<=n<=272) Transmission direction 16 CRC (Length in bits)
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VoIP and SS7
VoIP and SS7
Message Signal Unit (MSU) - ANSI
8 SIO 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 (5 + 3 spare) SLS
(Length in bits) Message content (variable length)
Figure 7-7 SS7 message format
DPC DPC DPC OPC OPC OPC Member Cluster Network Member Cluster Network
Transmission direction
Message Signal Unit (MSU) - ITU
8 SIO 14 DPC 14 4 SLS (Length in bits) Message content (variable length)
Transmission direction SIO = Service Information Octet SLS = Signaling link selection The ANSI SLS is 8 bits, but historically was 5 bits with 3 bits to spare
destination of the message and the originator of the message respectively The Signaling Link Selection (SLS) field also exists, which indicates the particular signaling link to be used for carrying this message between the two nodes in question
SS7 Addressing
As mentioned, signaling entities in an SS7 network are addressed by SPCs A quick look at Figure 7-7 shows that unfortunately different versions of SS7 exist, with different point code structures For example, in North America, point codes are 24 bits long, whereas in most other countries, point codes are 14 bits long A notable exception is China, where point codes are 24 bits long In North America, point codes have a hierarchical structure, with the format network-cluster-member, each of eight bits The operator of a very large network would be allocated a network code, enabling that operator to have about 65,000 different SPCs Given that different SS7 formats and addressing schemes exist, how do SS7 entities in different countries communicate The answer is through
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VoIP and SS7
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international signaling gateways (SGs) These gateways are signaling points that support the national SS7 variant at one side and the ITU-T international variant at the other This fact of both national and international variants brings us back to the Subservice field mentioned earlier Recall that this field is used to indicate the signaling numbering plan in use Four variants exist: National, National Spare, International, and International Spare A network element that acts as an international gateway will have at least two point codes, one a national point code and one an international point code Messages to and from other nodes in the national network will be addressed with the national point code, and messages to and from other international nodes will use the international point code Thus, a hierarchy exists in the SS7 network whereby messages between countries must go from the national signaling plane to the international signaling plane and back down to the national signaling plane in the destination country, as shown in Figure 7-8
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