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ISUP
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In regular telephony, ISUP is the most often used SS7 application ISUP is the protocol utilized for the establishment and release of telephone calls Figure 7-9 shows a typical call establishment and release The call begins with the IAM, which contains information about the called number, the calling number, the transmission requirement (typically 64 Kbps), the type of caller (ordinary, operator, payphone, and so on), and other information, such as whether a satellite link has been included in the call so far Upon receipt of the IAM at the destination switch, an Address Complete Message (ACM) is returned This message indicates that the call is throughconnected to the destination The ACM causes a one-way audio path to be opened from the destination switch to the originating switch so that the
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Figure 7-8 International signaling
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 7-9 ISUP call establishment and release
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a IAM b IAM c ACM d ACM e One-way audio f CPG g CPG h ANM i ANM j Two-way speech path k REL l REL m RLC n RLC
caller can hear a ring-back tone Note that the tone is generated at the destination end Strictly speaking, the ACM is an optional message Although it is returned in most calls, that is not always the case Situations can exist where an ACM is not returned If it is not returned, the caller does not hear a ring-back tone at all, and it appears as though the call is answered immediately This happens quite frequently on calls to toll-free numbers, particularly if the call is answered automatically After the ACM, there might be one or more Call Progress (CPG) messages The CPG is an optional message and is used to provide additional information to the calling switch regarding the handling of the call
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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7
Once the called party answers, an Answer Message (ANM) is returned This message typically has two purposes The first is to open the transmission path in both directions so that the parties can converse The second is to instigate charging for the call, since charging for most calls begins when the call is answered After conversation, one of the parties hangs up This causes a Release (REL) message to be sent to the other end The end that receives the REL responds with a Release Complete (RLC) message At this point, the call is complete Note that the signaling passes through one or more STPs, whereas the speech takes a more direct transmission path from A to B That situation leads to one important question Given that there might be many simultaneous calls between switch A and switch B, how does the ISUP signaling differentiate between calls In particular, how is a given ISUP message correlated with a given speech path between the switches The answer is the Circuit Identification Code (CIC), which is contained within each ISUP message For an ISUP message between two switches, the CIC indicates the specific trunk between the switches to which the message applies In fact, a given circuit between two switches is completely identified by the combination of OPC, DPC, and CIC The CIC can be seen in the ISUP message formats shown in Figure 7-10 The figure also serves to further highlight the differences between different SS7 variants
Message Signal Unit (MSU) - ANSI
Figure 7-10 The ISUP message format
8 SIO
24 DPC
24 OPC
8 (5 + 3 spare) SLS
14 CIC
2 spare
(Length in bits) Message content (variable length)
Message Type
Transmission direction
Message Signal Unit (MSU) - ITU
8 SIO 14 DPC 14 OPC 4 SLS 12 CIC 4 spare 8 (Length in bits) Message content (variable length)
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