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Figure 7-19 Application of V52
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Figure 7-20 V5UA usage between MGC and an access network
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V52
NIF V5UA
V52 V5UA SCTP IP
LAPV5
LAPV5
SCTP IP
NIF = Nodal Interworking Function
protocol enables the V52 applications at the MGC to utilize the native V52 functions on the access network side of the SG V5UA has a registered port number of 5675
SCTP
SCTP is specified in RFC 2960 The primary motivation behind the development of SCTP was that neither UDP nor TCP offered both the speed and reliability required of a transport protocol used to carry signaling SCTP
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VoIP and SS7
7
offers both speed and reliability, and it offers upper-layer applications the opportunity to take advantage of those characteristics In the SCTP specification, such an application is known as an Upper-layer Protocol (ULP) A ULP can be any of the protocols directly above the SCTP layer, as illustrated in Figure 7-15, such as M2UA or M3UA Some SCTP Concepts Before attempting to explain how SCTP provides this reliable transport to the various SCTP users, it is first worth becoming familiar with some SCTP terminology Note that the following terms comprise just a selection of the most important terms necessary for an understanding of SCTP basics
SCTP Endpoint An SCTP endpoint is a logical sender or receiver of SCTP packets In protocol terms, an SCTP endpoint is a combination of one or more IP addresses and a port number SCTP enables an endpoint to have multiple IP addresses, meaning that the endpoint can be multihomed (spread over several physical platforms) This concept is important, because it enables for fault tolerance in the network, something critical to carriergrade performance Even though a given SCTP endpoint can have multiple IP addresses, it can use only one port number Thus, if an endpoint has several IP addresses, the same SCTP port number is applicable to each The combination of an IP address and a port number is known as a transport address Note that a given transport address may apply to only one SCTP endpoint, though that endpoint may have several transport addresses Association SCTP works by establishing a relationship between SCTP end-
points Such a relationship is known as an association and is defined by the SCTP endpoints involved and the current protocol state Before applications at two endpoints can communicate, an association must be established Once communication is complete, the association can be terminated The association can also be terminated in error situations The upper-layer protocols such as ISUP, SCCP, or TCAP are not aware of such associations After all, they are blind to the fact that the signaling is being carried by something other than standard MTP Therefore, the task of instigating an SCTP association falls to the applicable adaptation layer
Packets and Chunks SCTP sits on top of IP When SCTP wants to send a
piece of information to the remote end, it sends what is known as an SCTP packet to IP, which routes the packet to the destination The SCTP packet comprises a common header and a number of chunks, as depicted in
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VoIP and SS7
VoIP and SS7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
Figure 7-21 The SCTP packet format
Source Port Number Verification Tag
Destination Port Number
Adler-32 Checksum Chunk ID Chunk 1 Chunk Value Chunk Flags Chunk Length
Chunk ID Chunk 2
Chunk Flags
Chunk Length
Chunk Value
Chunk ID
Chunk Flags
Chunk Length
Chunk 3
Chunk Value
Figure 7-21 The common header includes the source and destination port numbers, which, when combined with the source and destination IP addresses, uniquely identify the endpoints The header also includes a verification tag, which is used to validate the sender of the packet The verification tag is described in further detail later in this chapter The common header also includes an Adler-32 checksum, which is a particular calculation based on the values of the octets in the packet This checksum is used to ensure that the packet has been received without corruption and provides another level of protection over and above the IP header checksum A number of chunks follow the common header Each chunk is comprised of a chunk header, plus some chunk-specific content This content can be either SCTP control information or SCTP user information In the case of SCTP user information from a ULP, the value of the Chunk ID is 0, indicating user payload data Otherwise, the Chunk ID will have a value indicating a particular type of SCTP control information The possible values for the chunk flags and chunk length depend upon the value of the Chunk ID
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