Transporting Voice by Using IP in .NET

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Transporting Voice by Using IP
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IP itself makes no guarantees that a given packet will be delivered, let alone that multiple packets will be delivered in sequence and without omission IP is known as a best-effort protocol This means that a packet should be delivered under normal circumstances, but that a packet may be lost along the way due to transmission errors, congestion in buffers or transmission facilities, link failures, and so on
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The IP Header
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The IP header appears as in Figure 2-5 Although all the fields in the header are there for a reason, a number are of particular importance The first of these is the version The currently deployed version of IP is 4 and the header shown in Figure 2-5 applies to IP version 4 The next version to be deployed is version 6 The Identification, Flags, and Fragment Offset fields are used for cases where a datagram needs to be split into fragments in order to traverse a link, particularly in the case where the size of the datagram is greater than the maximum that can be handled by a given link The Identification field is used to identify datagram fragments that belong together The Flags field indicates whether a datagram may be fragmented or not, and in the case of
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Figure 2-5 IP datagram format
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
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Version
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Header Length
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Type of Service Flags
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Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum
Identification Time to Live Protocol
Source IP Address Destination IP Address Options
Data
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Transporting Voice by Using IP
Transporting Voice by Using IP
a fragmented datagram, it is used to indicate whether a particular fragment is the last fragment The fragment offset is a number describing where the fragment belongs in the overall datagram, thereby enabling the destination to put the different pieces together correctly The Time to Live (TTL) is an indication of how long a datagram should exist in the network before being discarded Although this field was originally meant to represent a number of seconds, it actually represents a number of hops It is set by the originating node and is decremented by one at each subsequent node If the datagram does not reach its destination by the time the TTL reaches zero, then the datagram is discarded The Protocol field indicates the higher-layer protocol or application to which this datagram belongs For example, at the destination node, the value of this field indicates whether this is a TCP or UDP datagram or something else The protocol value for TCP is 6 The protocol value for UDP is 17 The source and destination IP addresses in IP version 4 are 32 bits (4 octets) long An IP address is represented in dotted decimal notation as XXXXXXXXXXXX, with the maximum possible value being 255255255255
IP Routing
The main function of IP is the routing of data from source to destination This routing is based upon the destination address contained in the IP header and is the principal function of routers Routers can contain a range of different interfaces Ethernet, Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and so on Each interface will provide a connection to another router or perhaps to a LAN hub or even to a device such as a PC The function of the router is to determine the best outgoing interface to use for passing on a given IP datagram, that is, to determine the next hop The decision is made based on the content of the routing tables, which basically match destination IP addresses with interfaces on which the datagrams should be sent Of course, routers do not have every possible IP address loaded within them Instead, a match is made between the first portion of the IP address and a given interface When we say the first portion of the IP address, how much of the address does that mean The answer varies For example, one table entry might specify that any address starting with 1821616 should be routed on interface A, whereas another table entry might specify that any address starting with 18218 should be routed on interface B In the
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