Figure 8-19 The generic label format in VS .NET

Generating Data Matrix ECC200 in VS .NET Figure 8-19 The generic label format

Figure 8-19 The generic label format
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0 0 Generic Label (0200) Label Exp Length S TTL
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8
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
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Figure 8-20 The ATM label format
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
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0 0 Res V
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ATM Label (0201) VPI
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Length VCI
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Figure 8-21 The Frame Relay label format
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
0 0 Reserved
ATM Label (0202) Len DLCI
Length
the actual IP packet In such a situation, an LSR that receives the labeled packet will base its actions on the first (top) label The obvious question is, Why might we need more than one label The answer is tunneling Imagine a VoIP network operator that provides international service between the United States and the United Kingdom That provider will have gateways and routers on both sides of the Atlantic, but might not own the network in between Rather, the network operator could purchase service from another party, such as a large IP network operator That IP network operator might offer service to many different customers, and the traffic from each of those customers would be carried over the same network, but would need to be kept logically separate within that common network Suppose that a given packet with FEC F needs to follow the LSP R1, R2, R3, and R4 Let s assume that R2 and R3 are not directly connected, but form the two ends of the tunnel R2, R2A, R2B, R2C, and R3 Therefore, the actual path taken is R1, R2, R2A, R2B, R2C, R3, and R4, as depicted in Figure 8-22 When a packet travels from R1 to R2, it has a single label R2 determines that the packet P must enter the tunnel Therefore, R2 attaches another label on top of the first, so that the label stack has a depth of 2 In fact, it may replace the first label with a label that is meaningful to R3 and then place a new label on top The packet P has two labels as it passes through the tunnel When it reaches R2C, the LSR recognizes that it is the penultimate LSR in the tunnel (Both R2 and R3 are effectively part of the
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Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service (QoS)
R1 Packet P 1 Label R2 R3 Packet P No Label
Figure 8-22 An LSP tunnel
Packet P 2 Labels
Packet P 1 Label
Tunnel Packet P 2 Labels R2A R2B Packet P 2 Labels R2C
tunnel) R2C pops the stack and forwards the packet to R3 with only one label R3 uses the label to route to R4 In fact, R3, being the penultimate LSR in the overall LSP, may also pop the stack and pass the packet to R4 unlabeled The scenario depicted in Figure 8-22 is effectively an LSP nested within another LSP The MPLS architecture enables multiple levels of nesting, which can be useful in many situations Consider again our transatlantic VoIP provider That provider might want to send more than just VoIP traffic between the two countries In addition to the actual revenue-generating VoIP traffic, we can easily imagine a situation where the Information Technologies (IT) department must send billing information, and the Network Operations department needs to send network alarm and provisioning data Each department could have its own IP networks on either side of the Atlantic The company as a whole could purchase service from an international IP network operator, with its total traffic carried in a tunnel through the international IP operator s network Within that tunnel, each department s traffic would be carried within its own tunnel, as depicted in Figure 8-23
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