Actions at LSRs in Visual Studio .NET

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Actions at LSRs
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An LSR s actions depend on the value of the label it receives from an upstream LSR In fact, the action taken by the LSR is specified by the Next
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Quality of Service (QoS)
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Figure 8-23 MPLS tunnels within tunnels
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Hop Level Forwarding Entry (NHLFE), which indicates the next hop, the operation to perform on the label stack, and the encoding to be used for the stack on the outgoing link The operation to perform on the stack may mean that the LSR should replace the label at the top of the stack with a new label The operation might require the LSR to pop the label stack or replace the top label with a new label, and then add one or more additional labels on top of the first label The next hop for a given labeled packet might be the same LSR In such a case, the LSR pops the top-level label of the stack and forwards the packet to itself At this point, the packet might still have a label to be examined, or it might be a native IP packet without a label, in which case the packet is forwarded according to standard IP routing A given label could possibly map to more than one NHLFE This situation might occur where load-sharing takes place across multiple paths In such a case, the LSR chooses one of the NHLFEs to use according to some internal procedures In general, if a router happens to know that it is the penultimate LSR in a given path, then it should remove any labels and pass the packet to the final LSR without a label This minimizes the amount of processing that the ultimate LSR needs to undertake If the penultimate LSR passes a labeled packet to the final LSR, then the final LSR must examine the label, determine that the next hop is itself, pop the stack, and forward the packet to itself The LSR must then reexamine the packet to determine what to do with it If, on the other hand, the packet arrives without a label, the final LSR has one less step to execute How a particular LSR determines that it is the penultimate LSR for a given path is a function of label distribution and the distribution protocol used
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Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service (QoS)
MPLS Traffic Engineering
One of the most important applications of MPLS is in the area of traffic engineering, which can be summarized as the modeling, characterization, and control of traffic to meet specified performance objectives As described in RFC 2702, the performance objectives in question may be traffic oriented or resource oriented The former deals with QoS and includes aspects such as minimizing delay, jitter, and packet loss The latter deals with optimum usage of network resources, particularly network bandwidth These two objectives are not necessarily mutually exclusive For example, congestion avoidance is a major goal related to both network resource objectives and QoS objectives From a resource point of view, we want to avoid situations where one part of the network is congested while another part of the network is underutilized, particularly if the underutilized resources could be used to carry some of the traffic that is experiencing congestion Equally, from a QoS point of view, we want to allocate traffic streams to available resources to ensure that those streams do not experience congestion and the consequent packet loss and delay Congestion is primarily caused in two ways The first is simply due to a lack of sufficient resources in the network to accommodate the offered load The second is the steering of traffic towards resources that are already loaded, while other resources remain underutilized The expansion of capacity or the application of congestion control techniques such as flow control can correct the first situation The second situation can be addressed by good traffic engineering, that is, ensuring that traffic is directed through the network in a manner that is consistent with the needs of that traffic For example, we might want to direct VoIP traffic along the shortest path in order to minimize latency Traffic that is less delay sensitive could be sent along a less-direct path The current situation with IP routing and resource allocation is that the routing protocols are not well equipped to deal with traffic-engineering issues For example, a protocol such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) can actually promote congestion because it tends to force traffic down the shortest route, even though other acceptable routes might be less loaded In many network deployments, the solution to this problem has been to use traffic-engineering functions at layer 2 in the network ATM, for example, enables virtual circuits to be easily rerouted in cases of congestion MPLS also enables traffic-engineering functions Traffic Trunks RFC 2702 introduces the concept of a traffic trunk, which can be considered to be a set of flows that share specific attributes
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Quality of Service (QoS)
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