The TCP Header in .NET

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The TCP Header
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The TCP header has the format shown in Figure 2-7 The first fields we notice are the source and destination port numbers TCP Port Numbers Contrary to what the name implies, a port number does not represent any type of physical channel or hardware Instead, a port number is a means of identifying a specific instance of a given application
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Figure 2-7 TCP header format
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgement Number Data Offset Reserved U A P R S F R C S S Y I G K H T N N Window Urgent Pointer Padding Destination Port
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Imagine, for example, a computer where three things are happening at the same time browsing the web, e-mail, and file transfer Since each of these uses TCP, how does the computer distinguish between data received for one application versus data received for another That is where port numbers come into play Whenever a given application wants to begin a TCP session, a unique port number will be assigned for that particular session TCP will pass that port number to the far end in any TCP messages relating to that session So the near end knows its own port number, but how does it know the port number being used by the far end in advance of any communication with the far end There are two ways to know this The easiest is through the use of well-known port numbers These are port numbers from 0 to 1,023 reserved by the IANA for certain applications For example, port number 23 is used for TELNET and port number 25 is used for the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP, used for e-mail) If a client wants to access a service at a server, and that service is allocated a well-known port number, then that port number will be used as the destination port number Of course, for a given server, many clients may be trying to access the same type of service The server can distinguish between the various clients since TCP and IP together include both the destination address and port number, as well as the source address and port number The combination of all four will be unique The combination of an IP address and a port number is called a socket address Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers The next field we encounter is the sequence number Although, as the name suggests, a sequence number is used to identify individual segments in a data stream, the sequence number does not actually number the segments In other words, if a given segment has sequence number 100, then the next sequence will not have sequence number 101 The reason is because the sequence number is actually used to count data octets The sequence number is a number that is applicable to the first data octet in the segment Thus, if a given segment has a sequence number of 100 and contains 150 octets of data, then the next segment will have a sequence number of 250 The acknowledgement number indicates the next segment number that the receiver is expecting If, for example, a segment has been received with a sequence number of 100 and if the segment contains 150 octets of data, then the acknowledgement returned will contain an acknowledgement number of 250, indicating that the next segment expected should have a sequence number of 250
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