Transporting Voice by Using IP in Visual Studio .NET

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Transporting Voice by Using IP
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The RTP Header
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As mentioned, RTP carries the actual encoded voice What this means is that one or more digitally coded samples make up the RTP payload An RTP header is attached to this payload and the packet is sent to UDP The RTP header includes information necessary for the destination application to reconstruct the original voice sample (at least to as close a match as is enabled by the coding scheme used) The RTP header is shown in Figure 2-12 The meanings of the various header fields are as follows:
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Version (V) This field should be set to the value 2, which is the current version of RTP Padding (P) This field is comprised of one bit and indicates whether the packet contains one or more padding octets at the end of the payload Because of the fact that the payload needs to align with a 32bit boundary, it is possible that the end of the payload contains padding to align with the boundary If such padding exists, then the P bit is set and the last octet of the padding contains a count of how many padding octets are included Of course, such padding octets should be ignored Extension (X) This field is comprised of one bit and indicates whether the fixed header, as shown in Figure 2-12, contains a header extension If this bit is set, then the header is followed by exactly one header extension, as described later and with the format shown in Figure 2-13 CSRC Count (CC) The CC uses a four-bit field indicating the number of contributing source identifiers included in the header and takes a value of 0 to 15 Refer to Contributing Source Identifiers described later
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Figure 2-12 RTP header format
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 V=2 P X CC M PT Timestamp Synchronization Source (SSRC) Identifier Contributing Source (CSRC) Identifiers ( 0 to 15 entries) Sequence Number
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Figure 2-13 RTP header extension
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Profile-specific information Header extension Length
Marker (M) The marker is a one-bit field, the interpretation of which is dependent upon the payload being carried RFC 1889 does not mandate any specific use of this bit, but RFC 1890 (audio-video profile) does RFC 1890 states that, for an application that does not send packets during periods of silence, this bit should be set in the first packet after a period of silence (the first packet of a talkspurt) Applications that do not support silence suppression should not set this bit Payload Type (PT) This field comprises seven bits and indicates the format of the RTP payload The content of the PT field is interpreted according to Table 2-1 or Table 2-2 In general, a single RTP packet will contain media coded according to only one payload format The exception to this rule is the RED profile, where several payload formats may be included In the case of RED, the payload itself contains information as to how the primary and redundant samples are coded and how they are arranged within the payload Specifically, the first several octets of the payload contain information about the primary and redundant samples, including the coding schemes used, sample lengths, and timestamp data The exact number of octets used to convey this information depends on the number of primary and redundant samples contained in the RTP packet Refer to RFC 2198 Sequence Number This is a 16-bit field It is set to a random number by the sender at the beginning of a session and is incremented by one for each successive RTP packet sent It enables the receiver to detect packet loss and/or packets arriving in the wrong order Timestamp This is a 32-bit field indicating the instant at which the first sample in the payload was generated The sampling instant must be derived from a clock that increases monotonically and linearly in time so that far-end applications may play out the packets in a synchronized manner and so that jitter calculations may be performed The resolution of the clock needs to be adequate to support synchronized playout The clock frequency is dependent on the format of the payload data For static payload formats, the applicable clock
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