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The INVITE request is the most fundamental and important SIP request, as it is the request used to initiate a session (ie, establish a call) Figure 59 shows a two-party call, where Collins initiates the session The INVITE request is issued to manager@station2workcom, as can be seen from the Request-URI The reason why the address is very specific to the host where the callee is located is because this example s signaling flow does not traverse any proxies Under normal circumstances, one might expect that the message would be addressed to sip:manager@workcom and would be forwarded by a proxy to sip:manager@station2workcom Since our example does not include a proxy to forward the INVITE to the specific host, the INVITE itself is addressed to the specific host In our example, the To:
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The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
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Daniel<sip:Collins@workcom>
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Boss<sip:Manager@station2workcom>
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Figure 5-9 SIP establishment of a two-party call
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a INVITE sip:manager@station2workcom SIP/20 Via: SIP/20/UDP station1workcom; branch=z9hG4bK123 Max-Forwards: 70 From: Daniel<sip:Collins@workcom>; tag=44551 Contact: sip:Collins@station1workcom To: Boss<sip:Manager@station2workcom> Call-ID: 123456@station1workcom CSeq: 1 INVITE Subject: Vacation Content-Length: xxx Content-Type: application/sdp Content-Disposition: session (message body) SIP/20 180 Ringing Via: SIP/20/UDP station1workcom; branch=z9hG4bK123 From: Daniel<sip:Collins@workcom>;tag=44551 To: Boss<sip:Manager@station2workcom>; tag=11222 Contact: sip:manager@station2workcom Call-ID: 123456@station1workcom CSeq: 1 INVITE Content-Length: 0 c SIP/20 200 OK Via: SIP/20/UDP station1workcom; branch=z9hG4bK123 From: Daniel<sip:Collins@workcom>;tag=44551 To: Boss<sip:Manager@station2workcom>;tag=11222 Contact: sip:manager@station2workcom Call-ID: 123456@station1workcom CSeq: 1 INVITE Subject: Vacation Content-Length: xxx Content-Type: application/sdp Content-Disposition: session (message body) d ACK sip:manager@station2workcom SIP/20 Via: SIP/20/UDP station1workcom; branch=z9hG4bK123 Max-Forwards: 70 From: Daniel<sip:Collins@workcom>;tag=44551 To: Boss<sip:Manager@station2workcom>;tag=11222 Call-ID: 123456@station1workcom CSeq: 1 ACK Content-Length: 0 e Conversation
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header field has the same value as the Request-URI, because we are not traversing any proxies (As described later in this chapter, the Request-URI can be changed when a message passes through a proxy) The From: header field indicates that the call is from collins@workcom As can be seen from Figure 5-9, SIP enables a display name to be used with
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The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
the SIP URI Thus, the called user s terminal could display the name Daniel when alerting the called user rather than displaying the SIP URI The optional header field Subject: is used to indicate the nature of the call, and the type of media that Daniel wishes to use is described within the message body The Content-Type: entity header field indicates that this particular message body is described according to SDP The Content-Disposition header field indicates that the message body is to be treated as session information (as opposed to being displayed to the user, for example) In the example, the length of xxx is used just to indicate some nonzero value The actual length will depend upon the content of the message body In Figure 5-9, the first response received is an indication that the user is being alerted This is conveyed through the use of the 180 status code Note that most of the header fields are copied from the request to the response, with the exception of the Content-Length and Content-Type, since this response does not contain a message body Note that the To: header field from the called party contains a tag parameter, whereas the To: field in the original invite did not contain a tag parameter In fact, the tag parameter should be inserted only by the party that owns the address in question In combination, the content of the tag in the From: field, the tag in the To: field, and the Call-ID constitute a dialog ID, which identifies a peer-to-peer relationship between two user agents Once both parties have inserted their tag values into the To: and From: fields according to which of the fields they own, then a dialog has been established From that point onwards, each party should include the appropriate tag value in the To: and From: fields of every subsequent request and response until the dialog is terminated An important aspect of the dialog is the dialog state If the response to an INVITE is a 1XX (provisional) response and it contains a tag parameter in the To: header field, then a session has not yet been established, but a dialog has Such a dialog is said to be in early state If a 2XX response is received with a tag in the To: header field, then the dialog is confirmed Subsequently in our example, the called user answers and a 200 (OK) response is returned This response to an INVITE includes a number of header fields that have been copied from the original request In addition, it contains a message body describing the media that the called party wants to use Finally, the caller sends an ACK to confirm receipt of the response Note that the content of the CSeq: header field has changed to reflect the new request Note also that, although most requests are answered with a 200 (OK) response if the request has been received and handled correctly, this is not the case for an ACK request Once the ACK has been sent, the parties can exchange media
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The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
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