2 3 Networks OSI Reference Model Layer-2 LAN Technologies 4 5 Bridges and Switches Wireless LANs in Objective-C

Encoder QR Code in Objective-C 2 3 Networks OSI Reference Model Layer-2 LAN Technologies 4 5 Bridges and Switches Wireless LANs

CHAPTERS
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1 2 3 Networks OSI Reference Model Layer-2 LAN Technologies 4 5 Bridges and Switches Wireless LANs
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Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies Click here for terms of use
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Networks
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CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVES
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101 102 103 Introduction to Networks Network Topologies Introduction to Network Security
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1: Networks
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his chapter offers a brief introduction to networking and some basic networking terms and concepts This material should be a review of many familiar conceptsYou should understand the various networking topologies used in networks, as well as different types of networks, such as local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) The last half of the chapter will briefly introduce security and its necessity in today s networks
CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE 101
Introduction to Networks
A network is basically all of the components (hardware and software) involved in connecting computers and applications across small and large distances Networks are used to provide easy access to information, thus increasing productivity for users This section covers some of the components involved with networking as well as the basic types of topologies used to connect networking components, including computers Resources that are commonly shared in a network include data and applications, printers, network storage components (shared disk space), and backup storage components
Network Characteristics
The following characteristics should be considered in network design and ongoing maintenance:
Cost
Includes the cost of the network components, their installation, and their ongoing maintenance Includes the protection of the network components and the data they contain and/or the data transmitted between them Includes how fast data is transmitted between network end points (the data rate) Describes the physical cabling layout and the logical way data moves between components Defines how well the network can adapt to new growth, including new users, applications, and network components
Security Speed
Topology
Scalability
Introduction to Networks
Reliability
Defines the reliability of the network components and the connectivity between them Mean time between failures (MTBF) is a measurement commonly used to indicate the likelihood of a component failing Measures the likelihood of the network being available to the users, where downtime occurs when the network is not available because of an outage or scheduled maintenance Availability is typically measured in a percentage based on the number of minutes that exist in a year Therefore, uptime would be the number of minutes the network is available divided by the number of minutes in a year
Availability
When designing and maintaining a network, remember these
factors: cost, security, speed, topology, scalability, reliability, and availability
Designing a network requires a close analysis and balance of cost, security, speed, topology, scalability, reliability, and availability Every network is different, and the solution that you design will be unique for each situation
Components
Applications, which enable users to perform various tasks, make up a key component of networking Many applications are network-aware, allowing you to access and use resources that are not located on your local computer While the number of networking applications ranges in the thousands, some of the more common networking applications include e-mail applications for sending mail electronically, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) applications for transferring files, and web applications for providing a graphical representation of information Protocols are used to implement applications Some protocols are open standard, meaning that many vendors can create applications that can interoperate with each other, while others are proprietary, meaning that they work only with a particular application Common protocols used on the Internet are Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4), and Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), which implements e-mail applications such as Sendmail and Microsoft Exchange; File Transfer Protocol (FTP), which implements file transfer programs such as FTP Explorer, Cute FTP, and WSFTP; and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which implements web browsing applications such as
1: Networks
Internet Explorer and Firefox and web server applications such as Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) and Apache Some applications, such as e-mail, require little bandwidth, while others, such as backup software, video software, and file transfer software, require a lot Some applications operate in real-time, such as voice over IP (VoIP) and video; some operate interactively, such as instant messaging or database queries; and some operate in a batch mode, requiring little user interaction Today s networks need to accommodate all these different types of resources and applications, including their specific requirements such as bandwidth for large transfers or minimal delay and latency for VoIP and video Quality of service (QoS) features are commonly used to meet these requirements
VoIP and video traf c is sensitive to delay and latencyTherefore, QoS is commonly implemented to ensure
these applications have enough bandwidth and are prioritized throughout the network to limit the amount of delay they incur
To build a network, you need three component categories: computers, networking, and media Computer components such as PCs and file servers running Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS, UNIX (including Linux), or other operating systems are responsible for providing applications to the users Networking components such as hubs, bridges, switches, routers, firewalls, wireless access points, modems, NT1s (Network Terminator Type 1 is an ISDN network termination device), and channel service units/data service units (CSU/DSUs) are responsible for moving information between computers
Security appliances are specialized network components that typically provide many security functions, such as Cisco s ASAs and PIXs, Cisco s
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