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Default Gateway
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If devices on a segment want to reach devices in a different broadcast domain that is, a different network they must know to which default gateway to forward their traffic A default gateway is basically a router that knows how to get the local
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10: Sending and Receiving TCP/IP Packets
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broadcast domain s traffic to remote destinations Local devices will need to learn the default gateway dynamically or have it statically defined on them One way of telling whether or not a default gateway is defined on a host is to ping the default gateway s address from the host If you are successful, try pinging a different address (on a different subnet) on the same default gateway router If this is not successful, and you are certain that the other interface on the default gateway is operational, you probably don t have a default gateway address defined on your PC If you see a destination unreachable message, this is an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) reply from an intermediate layer 3 device indicating that a network problem has prohibited the ping from reaching the destination; if you see a request timeout message, your device is not receiving any type of ICMP reply to your original ping
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TCP/IP Protocols
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Many protocols are used in TCP/IP to transport information between hosts The three commonly used protocols are Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP), domain name service (DNS), and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which were discussed in 6 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), discussed in 9, are used to transmit data, such as file transfers and e-mails, between hosts Here s a quick overview of the protocols:
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Dynamically acquires IP addressing information on a host, including an IP address, subnet mask, default gateway address, and a DNS server address Resolves names to layer 3 IP addresses Resolves layer 3 IP addresses to layer 2 MAC addresses so that devices can communicate in the same broadcast domain Reliably transmits data between two devices It uses a three-way handshake to build a session and windowing to implement flow control, and it can detect and resend lost or bad segments Delivers data with a best effort No handshaking is used to establish a session a device starts a session by sending data
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End-to-End Delivery Example
CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE 1002
End-to-End Delivery Example
This part of the chapter illustrates how devices communicate with each other using TCP/IP The network shown in Figure 10-1 is used to illustrate the example Notice that there are three Ethernet network segments (broadcast domains) containing the following devices:
10010/24 10020/24 10030/24
FIGURE 10-1
PC-A 10011/24 00001111AAAA
PC-A, Switch-A, and Router-A Router-A, Hub-A, and Router-B Router-B, Switch-B, and PC-B
Example TCP/IP communications
1 Switch-A 3 Interface 1 10012/24 00001111BBBB
DHCP Server 10013/24 00001111CCCC 2
Interface 2 10021/24 00002222AAAA
Hub-A
Interface 1 10022/24 00002222BBBB
Router-B Interface 2 10031/24 00003333AAAA Switch-B
Router-A 1 1 DNS Server 10023/24 00002222CCCC 2
PC-B 10032/24 00003333BBBB
10: Sending and Receiving TCP/IP Packets
The remainder of this chapter covers how PC-A acquires its IP addressing information using DHCP, how DNS works to resolve names, how PC-A and PC-B use TCP to perform telnet, how the three-way handshake occurs, how the switches switch frames, and how the routers route the packets In this example, assume that the routers have static routes defined to reach the IP destinations and that the two switches have just booted up and haven t learned any MAC addresses
PC-A Acquires Addressing Information
Recall from 6 that one way of acquiring IP addressing information on a device is to use DHCP Let s assume PC-A hasn t acquired its IP addressing information yet and will be using DHCP As soon as PC-A s NIC becomes operational and the TCP/IP stack has been loaded, PC-A will go through the eight-step DHCP process: 1 PC-A creates an Ethernet frame with an encapsulated DHCP Discover packet The source MAC address in the frame is PC-A s 00001111AAAA, and the destination is a broadcast of FFFFFFFFFFFF 2 When Switch-A receives the frame, it performs its learning process, adding 00001111AAAA and port 1 to the CAM table Since it is a broadcast, the switch floods the frame out ports 2 and 3 3 Off port 3, when the router receives the frame, it processes it at layer 2, since the destination MAC address is a broadcast; but then it drops the frame at layer 3, since it isn t a DHCP server 4 Off port 2, when the DHCP server receives the frame, it processes it at layer 2, since it is a local broadcast, and forwards it up to layer 3 5 Assuming the DHCP server has a free address in its pool, the DHCP server responds with a DHCP OFFER message with IP addressing information: IP address of 10011/24, DNS server address of 10023, and a default gateway of 10012 This is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame with a source MAC address of the server s 00001111CCCC and a destination MAC address of PC-A, 00001111AAAA 6 When Switch-A receives the OFFER message, it does its learning function, adding 00001111CCCC and port 2 to the CAM table It then does its forwarding function, comparing the destination MAC address of 00001111 AAAA to the CAM table and sees that this is associated with port 1; so the switch forwards the frame out that port
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