qr code c# free Layers of the OSI Reference Model in Objective-C

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Layers of the OSI Reference Model
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implemented at the transport layer To set up connections or tear down connections, the session layer communicates with the transport layer Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) are an example of a TCP/IP session protocol; the Network File System (NFS), which uses RPCs, is another example of a protocol at this layer The session layer is also responsible for error reporting of any issues at the application, presentation, and session layers and for implementing any type of class of service (CoS) to give preference to some types of traffic or connections over others
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The session layer is responsible for setting up, maintaining,
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and tearing down network connections Examples include RPCs and NFS
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Layer 4:The Transport Layer
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The fourth layer of the OSI Reference Model is the transport layer The transport layer is responsible for the actual mechanics of setting up, maintaining, and tearing down a connection, where it can provide both reliable and unreliable delivery of data For reliable connections, the transport layer is responsible for error detection and correction: when an error is detected, the transport layer will resend the data, thus providing the correction For unreliable connections, the transport layer provides only error detection error correction is left up to one of the higher layers (typically the application layer) In this sense, unreliable connections attempt to provide a besteffort delivery if the data makes it there, that s great, and if it doesn t, oh well! An example of a reliable transport protocol is TCP/IP s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) TCP/IP s User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an example of a protocol that uses unreliable connections For people just beginning to learn the mechanics of the OSI Reference Model, it is sometimes difficult to see the delineation between what the session and transport layer actually do The session layer deals with timeout issues, notifications, hello packets to determine connection issues, and so on; the transport layer entails the actual delivery mechanisms of moving information (at the transport layer) between network components
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2: OSI Reference Model
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The fourth layer, the transport layer, provides both guaranteed data delivery and no guarantee of data delivery Ef cient guaranteed delivery is provided through sequencing,
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acknowledgment, and ow control Flow control methods include buffering, windowing, and congestion avoidance Examples of transport layer protocols include TCP/IP s TCP and UDP protocols
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The transport layer has five main functions:
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It sets up, maintains, and tears down a session connection between two
components
It can provide for the reliable or unreliable delivery of data across this
connection
It segments data into smaller, more manageable sizes It multiplexes connections, allowing multiple applications to send and
receive data simultaneously on the same networking device
It can implement flow control through ready/not ready signals or windowing
to ensure one component doesn t overflow another one with too much data on a connection Both of these methods typically use buffering and are used to avoid congestion The following sections cover these processes in more depth
Remember the ve main delivery of data, ow control, multiplexing, functions of the transport layer: connection and segmentation management, reliable and unreliable
Reliable Connections
The transport layer can provide reliable and unreliable transfer of data between networking components TCP is an example of a transport layer protocol that
Layers of the OSI Reference Model
provides a reliable connection When implementing a reliable connection, sequence numbers and acknowledgments (ACKs) are commonly used For example, when information is sent to a destination, the destination will acknowledge to the source what information was received The destination can examine sequence numbers in the transmitted data segments to determine whether anything was missing (dropped along the way) as well as put the data back in the correct order, if it arrived out of order, before passing it on to the upper-layer application If a segment is missing, the destination can request that the source resend the missing information With some protocol stacks, the destination might have the source resend all of the information or parts of the information, including the missing parts Some reliable connection protocols might also go through a handshake process when initially building a connection This handshake process determines whether the two networking devices can build the connection and negotiates parameters that should be used to provide a reliable connection With TCP, this is called the threeway handshake TCP and the three-way handshake are discussed in more depth in 9
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