qr code c# free 12: Initial Switch Con guration in Objective-C

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12: Initial Switch Con guration
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This section focuses on the basic operations of a switch, such as learning MAC addresses and basic verification commands
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You ll recall that one of the three main functions of a switch is to learn which devices that is, MAC addresses are associated with which interfaces or ports This information is stored in a port address, or content addressable memory (CAM), table The learning process was discussed in 4 You can view the CAM table by using the show mac-address-table command Here is an example of the use of this command, based on the network shown in Figure 12-2:
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Switch> show mac address-table Mac Address Table -----------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports --------------------All 000000000001 STATIC CPU All 000000000002 STATIC CPU 1 00001111AAAA DYNAMIC FA0/1 1 00001111CCCC DYNAMIC FA0/2 1 00001111BBBB DYNAMIC FA0/3 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 12
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In this example, all the STATIC entries represent the switch itself The last three entries represent the MAC addresses learned from the first three interfaces of the switch By default, the 2960 can fit 8192 MAC addresses in its CAM table To clear dynamically learned entries from the CAM table, use the clear mac-addresstable command from Privilege EXEC mode You shouldn t see a broadcast or multicast addresses in the port address table since these are not seen as source addresses in frames and thus aren t learned by the switch
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Be familiar with the output of the show mac-address-table command If a destination MAC address is
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not in the table (unknown), the switch will ood it
Static MAC Addresses
In addition to having the switches learn MAC addresses dynamically, you can manually create static entries You might want to do this for security reasons If a user moves her connection from one switch port to another, her traffic won t be forwarded correctly if you had statically configured her address to the old port For traffic to flow correctly again, you would have to change the old entry to reflect the user s new interface You may want to do this to ensure that the user doesn t unplug her connection from one port and connect it to another port, where the user might have access to more networking resources Unlike dynamic entries in a CAM table, static entries do not age out This is true even if you reboot the switch (assuming your configuration has been saved) Also, if you have a static entry for a device and you move that device to a different port, even though the switch will see the change, the static entry will always override the learning function of the switch On a 2960 switch, use the following command to create a static entry in the CAM table:
Switch(config)# mac-address-table static MAC_address vlan VLAN_# interface type module/port_#
In addition to specifying the MAC address of the device and the interface where the device is located, you must also specify the VLAN in which the device is located (see 13) Use the show mac-address-table command to view your new entries To remove a static entry from the CAM table, preface the preceding command with the no parameter Statically configuring MAC addresses on the switch is not very common today If configured, static entries are typically used for network devices, such as servers and routers If you are concerned about controlling what user device is located from which interface on a switch, either use the port security feature or 8021x authentication
12: Initial Switch Con guration
EXERCISE 12-2 CAM Tables
ON THE CD
The following sections deal with the CAM table and port security This exercise will help you become more familiar with the CAM table on a 2950 switch You ll perform this lab using Boson s NetSim simulator You can find a picture of the network diagram for the simulator in the Introduction of this book 1 Start up the simulator and click the Lab Navigator button 2 Double-click Exercise 12-2 and click the Load Lab button This will load the lab configuration based on Exercise 12-1 3 On the 2950-1 switch, access Privilege EXEC mode and examine the CAM table If any entries appear, clear them 4 At the top of the simulator in the menu bar, click the eSwitches icon and choose 2950-1 5 Enter Privilege EXEC mode by typing enable View the CAM table by typing show mac-address-table 6 Clear the CAM table by typing clear mac-address-table dynamic 7 On the 2950-1, ping Host-1: type ping 192168110 Examine the CAM table: show mac-address-table What is the MAC address of Host-1 The MAC address will be different for each computer on which NetSim is installed With what interface is it associated (should be fastethernet0/3) 8 On the 2950-1, ping Host-2: type ping 192168111 Examine the CAM table: show mac-address-table What is the MAC address of Host-2 With what interface is it associated (should be fastethernet0/4) 9 Verify the MAC address on Host-1 10 At the top of the simulator in the menu bar, click the eStations icon and choose Host-1 Enter ipconfig /all and compare the MAC address of the PC to that learned by the 2950-1 switch on fastethernet0/3 11 Verify the MAC address on Host-2
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