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VLAN Connections
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If the same VLANs are on two connected switches, use a trunk connection between the switches to allow the associated VLANs on each side to communicate with each other Trunk connections are commonly used on routers so that a router, via subinterfaces,
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can route between the VLANsThe con guration of trunking on a router s interface is discussed in 16The trunking encapsulation, though, must match between the two trunking devices (such as using 8021Q on both sides, or ISL on both sides)
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Trunking Example
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Figure 13-4 shows an example of a trunk connection between SwitchA and SwitchB in a network that has three VLANs In this example, PC-A, PC-F, and PC-H belong to one VLAN; PC-B and PC-G belong to a second VLAN; and PC-C, PC-D, and PC-E belong to a third VLAN The trunk between the two switches is also tagging VLAN information so that the remote switch understands the source VLAN of the originator
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13: VLANs and Trunks
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PC-B
PC-E
PC-F
Broadcast traffic example
Trunk SwitchA SwitchB
Broadcast
Broadcast
PC-C
PC-D
PC-G
PC-H
Let s take a look at an example of the use of VLANs and the two different types of connections by using the network shown in Figure 13-5 In this example, PC-C generates a local broadcast When SwitchA receives the broadcast, it examines the incoming port and knows that the source device is from the gray VLAN (the accesslink connections are marked with dots) Seeing this, the switch knows to forward this frame only out of ports that belong to the same VLAN: this includes accesslink connections with the same VLAN identifier and trunk connections On this switch, one access-link connection belongs to the same VLAN, PC-D, so the switch forwards the frame directly out this interface The trunk connection between SwitchA and SwitchB handles traffic for multiple VLANs A VLAN tagging mechanism is required to differentiate the source of traffic when moving it between the switches For instance, assume that no tagging mechanism took place between the switches PC-C generates a broadcast frame, and SwitchA forwards it unaltered to PC-D and then SwitchB across the trunk The problem with this process is that when SwitchB receives the original Ethernet frame, it has no idea what port or ports to forward the broadcast to, since it doesn t know the origin VLAN As shown in Figure 13-5, SwitchA tags the broadcast frame, adding the source VLAN to the original Ethernet frame (the broadcast frame is tagged) When SwitchB receives the frame, it examines the tag and knows that this is meant only
VLAN Connections
for the VLAN to which PC-E belongs Of course, since PC-E is connected via an access-link connection, SwitchB first strips off the tagging and then forwards the original Ethernet frame to PC-E This is necessary because PC-E has a standard NIC and doesn t understand VLAN tagging Through this process, both switches maintained the integrity of the broadcast domain
8021Q
ISL, which is Cisco proprietary, is being phased out in Cisco s products and being replaced with IEEE s 8021Q trunking standard, which was introduced in 1998 One of the advantages provided by the IEEE standard is that it allows trunks between different vendors devices, whereas ISL is supported only on certain Cisco devices Therefore, you should be able to implement a multivendor trunking solution without having to worry about whether or not a specific type of trunk connection is or is not supported The 2960 switches, as well as Cisco s higher-end switches such as the 6500 series, support 8021Q Actually, the 2960 switches support only 8021Q trunking they don t support ISL 8021Q trunking is supported on switch ports that are capable of either Fast or Gigabit Ethernet speeds 8021Q trunks support two types of frames: tagged and untagged An untagged frame does not carry any VLAN identification information in it basically, this is a standard, unaltered Ethernet frame The VLAN membership for the frame is determined by the switch s port configuration: if the port is configured in VLAN 1, the untagged frame belongs to VLAN 1 This VLAN is commonly called a native VLAN A tagged frame contains VLAN information, and only other 8021Q-aware devices on the trunk will be able to process this frame One of the unique aspects of 8021Q trunking is that you can have both tagged and untagged frames on a trunk connection, such as that shown in Figure 13-6 In this example, the white VLAN (PC-A, PC-B, PC-E, and PC-F) uses tagged frames on the trunk between SwitchA and SwitchB Any other device that is connected on this trunk line would have to have 8021Q trunking enabled to see the tag inside the frame to determine the source VLAN of the frame In this network, a third device is connected to the trunk connection: PC-G This example assumes that a hub connects the two switches and the PC together PC-G has a normal Ethernet NIC and obviously wouldn t understand the tagging and would drop these frames However, this presents a problem: PC-G belongs to the dark VLAN, where PC-C and PC-D are also members Therefore, in order for frames to be forwarded among these three members, the trunk must also support untagged frames so that PC-G can process them To set this up, you would configure
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