VTP Pruning in Objective-C

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VTP pruning is a Cisco feature that allows your switches dynamically to delete or add VLANs to a trunk, creating a more efficient switching network By default, all VLANs are associated with a trunk connection This means that if a device in any VLAN generates a broadcast, multicast, or an unknown unicast, the switch
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will flood this frame out all ports associated with the source VLAN port, including trunks In many situations, this flooding is necessary, especially if the VLAN spans multiple switches However, it doesn t make sense to flood a frame to a neighboring switch if that switch doesn t have any active ports in the source VLAN
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Let s take a look at a simple example by examining Figure 13-8 In this example, VTP pruning is not enabled PC-A, PC-B, PC-E, and PC-F are in the same VLAN If PC-A generates a broadcast, SwitchA will forward this to the access link to which PC-B is connected as well as the trunk (since a trunk is a member of all VLANs, by default) This makes sense, since PC-E and PC-F, connected to SwitchB, are in the same VLAN Figure 13-8 shows a second VLAN with two members: PC-C and PC-D If PC-C generates a local broadcast, SwitchA will obviously send to this to PC-D s port What doesn t make sense is that SwitchA will flood this broadcast out its trunk port to SwitchB, considering that no devices on SwitchB are in this VLAN This is an example of wasting bandwidth and resources A single broadcast isn t a big problem; however, imagine this were a video multicast stream at 5 Mbps coming from PC-A
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FIGURE 13-8
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13: VLANs and Trunks
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This network might experience throughput problems on the trunk, since a switch treats a multicast just like a broadcast it floods it out all ports associated with the source port s VLAN You could use one of two methods to fix this problem: static and dynamic VLAN pruning With a static configuration, you would manually prune the inactive VLAN off the trunk on both switches, as shown in Figure 13-9 Notice that in this figure, the dark VLAN (indicated by dotted lines) has been pruned from the trunk The problem with manual pruning is that if you add a dark VLAN member to SwitchB, you will have to log into both switches and manually add the pruned VLAN back to the trunk This can become very confusing in a multi-switched network with multiple VLANs, where every VLAN is not necessarily active on every switch It would be easy to accidentally prune a VLAN from a trunk that shouldn t have been pruned, thus creating connectivity problems
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The VTP pruning feature allows the switches to share additional VLAN information and allows them to prune inactive VLANs dynamically from trunk connections In this instance, the switches share which VLANs are active For example, SwitchA
FIGURE 13-9
VLAN pruning
VLAN Trunk Protocol
FIGURE 13-10
VTP pruning activating a VLAN on a trunk
tells SwitchB that it has two active VLANs (the white one and the dark one) SwitchB, on the other hand, has only one active VLAN, and it shares this fact with SwitchA Given the shared information, both SwitchA and SwitchB realize that the dark VLAN is inactive across their trunk connection and therefore the dark VLAN should be dynamically removed from the trunk s configuration The nice thing about this feature is that if you happen to activate the dark VLAN on SwitchB by connecting a device to a port on the switch and assigning that port to the dark VLAN, SwitchB will notify SwitchA about the newly active VLAN and both switches will dynamically add the VLAN back to the trunk s configuration This will allow PC-C, By default, all VLANs PC-D, and the new device to send frames to can traverse a trunk VTP pruning is used each other, as is shown in Figure 13-10 on trunk connections to dynamically Only a VTP switch in server mode can enable remove VLANs not active between the VTP pruning, and the remaining switches in the two switches It must be enabled on a VTP domain must be either in VTP server or client server switch and the other switches must mode If you have transparent mode switches, be either servers or clients you ll have to prune VLANs off their trunk links manually
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