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Creating VLANs
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This section covers how you can create VLANs on your switches and then statically assign access-link connections (interfaces) to your newly created VLANs Here are some guidelines to remember when creating VLANs:
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The number of VLANs you can create is dependent on the switch model and
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Some VLANs are preconfigured on every switch, including VLAN 1 and
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To add or delete VLANs, your switch must use either VTP server or
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VLAN names can be changed; VLAN numbers can t: you must delete a
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VLAN and re-add it in order to renumber it
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All interfaces, by default, belong to VLAN 1
13: VLANs and Trunks
CDP, DTP, and VTP advertisements are sent
Remember the preceding bulleted items for the exam
in the native VLAN, which is VLAN 1, by default
Before deleting VLANs, reassign any ports
from the current VLAN to another; if you don t, any ports from the deleted VLAN will be inoperable
Table 13-6 lists the VLAN capabilities of the 2960 switches You can use two methods an old one and a new one to create VLANs on your 2960 switch The old method requires you to go into the VLAN database in Privilege EXEC mode and create the VLAN, like this:
switch# vlan database switch(vlan)# vlan VLAN_# [name VLAN_name]
Starting in IOS 121(9)EA1 and later, you can use this configuration:
switch(config)# vlan VLAN_# switch(config-vlan)# name VLAN_name
When you execute the vlan command, you are taken into VLAN Subconfiguration mode, where you can enter your configuration parameters for the VLAN, such as its name Use the no parameter in front of the vlan command to delete it Cisco recommends you use the newer method to create VLANs on your switches: the Global configuration vlan commandThe former method of using the Privilege EXEC vlan database command is not available on newer IOS versions Remember that your switch must be a VTP server or transparent switch to create or delete VLANs on it Also, before you delete a VLAN, move all ports in the VLAN to a different one; otherwise, ports associated with a deleted VLAN will not be able to communicate with other ports until you either re-add the VLAN number back or move the ports to an existing VLAN When this happens, the port LED(s) will be solid amber
TABLE 13-6
Switch Model
2960 2960
Software Revision
LAN Lite LAN Base
Number of VLANs
64 255
VLAN Capabilities of the 2960 Cisco Switches
VLAN Con guration
Once you have created your VLANs, you need to assign your VLANs to your switch s interfaces using the following configuration:
switch(config)# interface type 0/port_# switch(config-if)# switchport mode access switch(config-if)# switchport access vlan VLAN_#
The first thing you must do is specify that the connection is an access-link connection with the switchport mode access command The switchport access vlan command assigns a VLAN to the access-link connection Once you have created and assigned your VLANs, you can use various show commands to review and verify your configuration The show vlan command displays the list of VLANs and which ports are assigned to them:
switch# show vlan VLAN Name Status Ports ---- --------------- --------- -----------------------------1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4 Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8 Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12 Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16 Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20 Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24 Gi0/1, Gi0/2 1002 fddi-default act/unsup
In this example, all the ports are assigned to VLAN 1 You can add the brief parameter to this command and it will not display the details for each VLAN at the bottom of the display You can also use the show interface switchport command to see a specific interface s VLAN membership information This command was shown earlier in the chapter in the Switch Trunk Configuration section
CertCam ON THE CD
1303 The CD contains a multimedia demonstration of configuring VLANs on a switch
13: VLANs and Trunks
Use the vlan database or vlan command to create a VLAN Use the switchport mode access and switchport access vlan commands to assign a VLAN to an interface If an
interface is con gured as an access-link, it cannot form a trunkThe show vlan command displays VLAN information: if the same interface is displayed for multiple VLANs, this interface is probably a trunk
Basic Troubleshooting of VLANs and Trunks
Now that you know how to set up a VLAN-based network, you will eventually run into a problem that is related to your VLAN configuration Basically, you should check the following, in order, to determine the cause of the problem: 1 Check the status of your interface to determine whether it is a physical layer problem 2 Check your switches and routers configuration to make sure nothing was added or changed 3 Verify that your trunks are operational 4 Verify that your VLANs are configured correctly and that the spanning tree protocol (STP), discussed in 14, is functioning correctly The following sections cover some of the basic things that you should check whenever you experience switching problems
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