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13: VLANs and Trunks
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INSIDE THE EXAM
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VLAN Overview
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Interestingly, the information in this chapter is emphasized a bit more than that of other chapters on the CCNA exam The exam focuses primarily on VLAN concepts and troubleshooting connectivity problems, but you might see a few questions on VLAN configurations Understand what VLANs are, the benefits they provide, that they represent subnets, and when they are used Know that a router is needed to route between VLANs Understand why VLANs are used to separate different kinds of traffic: data, voice, and video Understand its function: consistent VLAN configuration Be able to compare and contrast the VTP modes a switch can operate in server, client, and transparent and what a switch will do with a VTP message based on the mode in which it is operating Understand what the VTP password, domain, and configuration revision number are used for Be familiar with how VTP pruning works
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You should be familiar with the syntax of vtp commands, setting up a trunk port, and setting up an access-link and assigning a VLAN to it Understand how DTP works and the modes that can be used to form a trunk Be very familiar with the output of the show vtp status, show interface switchport, show interface trunk, and show vlan commands to identify how a switch is configured with VLAN information and to troubleshoot configuration problems
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Understand the difference between an access link and a trunk, and what each type can be connected to: switches, routers, and servers Be familiar with 8021Q, how it tags frames, and what the native VLAN is
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Be very familiar with VTP, since it is probably the most emphasized topic in this chapter
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Certi cation Summary
CERTIFICATION SUMMARY
A VLAN is a group of devices in the same broadcast domain (subnet) To move among VLANs, you need a router Static VLAN assignment to devices is also called port-based VLANs An access-link is a connection to a device that processes normal frames Trunk connections modify frames to carry VLAN information Ethernet trunking methods include ISL and 8021Q The 8021Q method inserts a 4-byte field and recomputes the FCS for Ethernet frames; the 2960 switches support only 8021Q VTP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that transmits VLAN information across trunk ports Switches must be in the same domain to share messages There are three modes for VTP: client, server, and transparent Server and transparent switches can add, change, and delete VLANs, but server switches advertise these changes Clients can accept updates only from server switches There are three VTP messages: advertisement request, subset advertisement, and summary advertisement Servers generate summary advertisements every 5 minutes on trunk connections The configuration revision number is used to determine which server switch has the most current VLAN information VTP pruning is used to prune off VLANs that are not active between two switches, but it requires switches to be in server and/or client mode On the 2960, use the vtp domain command and vtp server|client| transparent commands to configure VTP The default mode is server To configure a VTP password, use the vtp password command DTP is a Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol There are five modes: on (or trunk), off, desirable, auto, and no-negotiate On and desirable actively generate DTP messages auto is the default Use no-negotiate for non-Cisco switch connections On the 2960, use the switchport mode command to set trunking and the show interfaces switchport|trunk command to verify it By default, all interfaces are in VLAN 1 On the 2960, use the vlan command at Global Configuration mode command to create VLANs Use the switchport mode access and switchport access vlan commands to associate an interface with a VLAN The show vlan command displays your VLAN configuration
13: VLANs and Trunks
TWO-MINUTE DRILL
VLAN Overview
A VLAN is a group of devices, in the same broadcast domain, that have
the same network or subnet number VLANs are not restricted to physical locations: users can be located anywhere in the switched network
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