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Port-1 Switch-A Port-2
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for PC-B s MAC address Recall from 6 that Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) uses a broadcast mechanism to learn the MAC address that corresponds to a device s IP address In Figure 14-2, both switches would receive this frame and flood it to Segment-2, since the frame is a broadcast The first problem this creates is that although PC-A generates one frame, Segment-2, along with PC-B, sees two frames PC-B sees these as two distinct ARPs and will reply twice On top of this, depending on the application receiving the traffic, PC-B might see multiple copies of the same frame as an error and reset its connection to the source of the transmissions, creating connectivity issues The bigger issue here, however, is that both switches, on their Segment-2 ports, would again see the flooded ARP request and flood it back to Segment-1 Basically these broadcasts would continue to be flooded between the two segments, affecting all devices Devices are affected since their NICs would be processing all of these broadcasts; as more devices generate ARPs and other types of broadcast frames, the bandwidth is eventually gobbled up by these broadcasts In this scenario, the network will crash and the devices will run out of CPU cycles to process the broadcasts! Recall from 4 that multicasts are only processed by NICs in which the user has an application running that needs to see the specific multicast traffic: It notifies the NIC about the multicast address or addresses to listen for and process So a flood of multicasts won t affect the CPU cycles of devices not running an application that uses multicasting However, multicasts still affect everyone s bandwidth, since switches flood this kind of traffic; and if the multicasts are part of a high-speed video stream, this quickly gobbles up the bandwidth
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The third issue caused by layer 2 loops is that the switches mislearn the location of devices (based on their MAC addresses) Going back to Figure 14-2, assume that PC-A s MAC address is 000001AAAAAA When PC-A generates an ARP for PC-B s MAC address, both Switch-A and Switch-B receive the ARP request and perform their learning function, associating PC-A s MAC address with their respective Port-1 They then flood the frame to Segment-2 Again, both switches see the broadcast and perform their learning function, associating PC-A with their respective Port-2 In this situation, both switches assume that PC-A moved from Segment-1 to Segment-2 Both switches then flood the frame to Segment-1, where they again perform their learning function, and they again think PC-A moved from Segment-2 back to Segment-1 This flip-flopping happens over and over as the two broadcasts circle around and around between the two segments One problem this can create is that if the timing is right and PC-B sends an ARP reply back to PC-A, both switches might have PC-A s MAC address associated with their respective Port-2 If this were true, both would assume PC-A was on Segment2 and would drop and not forward the frame Thus, PC-A wouldn t get the reply to its ARP request and then couldn t communicate with PC-B Of course, PC-A could perform the ARP request again, but this would just make the problem worse, since now instead of two broadcasts circling around the loop, it would double to four!
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CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE 1402
Spanning Tree Protocol
The main function of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is to remove layer 2 loops from your topology, logically speaking DEC, now a part of HP, originally developed STP IEEE enhanced the initial implementation of STP, giving us the 8021d standard The two different implementations of STP, DEC and 8021d, are not compatible with each other you need to make sure that all of your devices support either one or the other All of Cisco s switches use IEEE s 8021d protocol, which is enabled, by default, on their switches If you have a mixed-vendor environment where some devices are running 8021d and others are running DEC s STP, you might run into layer 2 looping problems
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