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One of the main reasons for replacing the old cost method with a newer one is the inherent weakness in the algorithm used to calculate the port cost: 1000 divided by the port speed The assumption was that no port would have a speed greater than 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps) As you can see from today s Ethernet standards, 10 Gbps is making its way into corporate networks With the old port cost method, 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps links were treated as having the same speed
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Path Costs
Path costs are calculated from the root switch A path cost is basically the accumulated port costs from the root switch to other switches in the topology When the root advertises BPDUs out its interfaces, the default path cost value in the BPDU frame is 0 When a connected switch receives this BPDU, it increments the path cost by the cost of its local incoming port If the port was a Fast Ethernet port, then the path cost would be figured like this: 0 (the root s path cost) + 19 (the switch s port cost) = 19 This switch, when it advertises BPDUs to switches behind it, will include the Remember that path costs updated path cost As the BPDUs propagate are incremented as a BPDU comes into a further and further from the root switch, the port, not when a BPDU is advertised out accumulated path cost values become higher of a port and higher
Root Port Selection
If a switch has two or more choices of paths to reach the root, it needs to choose one path and thus have one root port A switch will go through the following STP steps when choosing a root port: 1 Choose the path with the lowest accumulated path cost to the root when it has a choice between two or more paths to reach the root
14: Switches and Redundancy
2 If multiple paths to the root are available with the same accumulated path cost, the switch will choose the neighboring switch (that the switch would go through to reach the root) with the lowest switch ID value 3 If multiple paths all go through the same neighboring switch, it will choose the local port with the lowest priority value 4 If the priority values are the same between the ports, it will choose the physically lowest numbered port on the switch For example, on a 2960, that would be FastEthernet 0/1 or Gigabit 0/1 After going through this selection process, the switch will have one, and only one, port that will become its root port
Remember the four steps used to choose a root port on a switch
Designated Port
You now know that each switch has a single root port that it uses to reach the root switch In addition to each switch having a root port, each segment also has a single port that is uses to reach the root, and this port is called a designated port For example, imagine that a segment has two switches connected to it Either one or the other switch will forward traffic from this segment to the rest of the network The third step in running STP is to elect a designated port on a single switch for each segment in the network The switch (and its port) that is chosen should have the best path to the root switch Here are the steps taken by switches in determining which port on which switch will be chosen as the designated port for a particular LAN segment 1 The connected switch on the segment with the lowest accumulated path cost to the root switch will be used 2 If there is a tie in accumulated path costs between two switches, the switch with the lowest switch ID will be chosen 3 If it happens that it is the same switch, but with two separate connections to the LAN segment, the switch port with the lowest priority is chosen 4 If there is still a tie (the priorities of the ports on this switch are the same), the physically lowest numbered port on the switch is chosen
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