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Spanning Tree Protocol
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After going through these steps for each segment, each segment will have a single designated port on a connected switch that it will use to reach the root switch Sometimes the switch that contains the designated port is called a designated switch This term is misleading, though, since it is a port on the switch that is responsible for forwarding traffic A switch may be connected Remember the four to two segments, but it may be the designated steps for choosing a designated port for switch for only one of those segments; another a segment switch may provide the designated port for the second segment Interestingly enough, every active port on the root switch is a designated port This makes sense because the cost of the attached network segments to reach the root is 0, the lowest accumulated cost value In other words, each of these LAN segments is directly attached to the root switch, so in reality, it costs nothing for the segment to reach the root switch itself
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Port States
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A port can be in one of five states when it is participating in STP:
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Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding Disabled
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Of the five states, only the first four are used when the algorithm is running The following sections cover these port states for STP
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Blocking
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Ports will go into a blocking state under one of three conditions:
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During election of a root switch (for instance, when you turn on all the
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switches in a network)
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When a switch receives a BPDU on a port that indicates a better path to the
root switch than the port which the switch is currently using to reach the root
If a port is not a root port or a designated port
14: Switches and Redundancy
A port in a blocking state will remain there for 20 seconds by default (the maximum age timer) During this state, the port is listening to and processing only BPDUs on its interfaces Any other frames that the switch receives on a blocked port are dropped In a blocking state, the switch is attempting to figure out which port is going to be the root port, which ports on the switch need to be designated ports, and which ports will remain in a blocking state to break up any loops
Listening
After the 20-second timer expires, a root port or a designated port will move to a listening state Any other port will remain in a blocking state During the listening state, the port is still listening for BPDUs and double-checking the layer 2 topology Again, the only traffic that is being processed on a port in this state consists of BPDUs; all other traffic is dropped A port will stay in this state for the length of the forward delay timer The default for this value is 15 seconds
Learning
From a listening state, a root and designated ports move into a learning state During the learning state, the port is still listening for and processing BPDUs on the port; however, unlike while in the listening state, the port begins to process user frames When processing user frames, the switch is examining the source addresses in the frames and updating its MAC or port address table, but the switch is still not forwarding these frames out destination ports Ports stay in this state for the length of the forward delay time (which defaults to 15 seconds)
Forwarding
Finally, after the forward delay timer expires, ports that were in a learning state are placed in a forwarding state In a forwarding state, the port will process BPDUs, update its MAC address table with frames that it receives, and forward user traffic through the port
Disabled
The disabled state is a special port state A port in a disabled state is not participating in STP This could be because the port has been manually shut down by an administrator, manually removed from STP, disabled because of security issues, or rendered nonfunctional because of a lack of a physical layer signal (such as the patch cable being unplugged)
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