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Four major port states are used in STP: blocking (20 seconds), listening (15 seconds), learning (15 seconds), and forwarding It can take 30 to 50 seconds for STP convergence to take place STP must recalculate if a new root is discovered or a topology change occurs in the network (a new switch added or a change in the
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state of a port on a switch) In blocking and listening states, only BPDUs are processed In a learning state, the MAC address table is being built In a forwarding state, user frames are moved between ports STP leaves ports in a blocking state to remove loops
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Layer 2 Convergence
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As you should have noticed in the last section, STP goes through a staged process, which slows down convergence For switches, convergence occurs once STP has completed: a root switch is elected, root and designated ports have been chosen, the root and designated ports have been placed in a forwarding state, and all other ports have been placed in a blocking state If a port has to go through all four states, convergence takes 50 seconds: 20 seconds in blocking, 15 seconds in listening, and 15 seconds in learning If a port doesn t have to go through the blocking state but starts at a listening state, convergence takes only 30 seconds This typically occurs when the root port is still valid, but another topology change has occurred Remember that during this time period (until the port reaches a forwarding state), no user traffic is forwarded through the port So, if a user was performing a telnet session, and STP was being recalculated, the telnet session, from the user s perspective, would appear stalled or the connection would appear lost Obviously, a user will notice this type of disruption
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STP convergence has occurred when all root and designated
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ports are in a forwarding state and all other ports are in a blocking state
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14: Switches and Redundancy
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PortFast Overview
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The faster that convergence takes place, the less disruption it will cause for your users You can reduce the two timers to speed up your convergence time, but this can create more problems if you aren t aware of what you are doing when you change them For user ports, you can use the PortFast feature to speed up convergence PortFast should be used only on ports that will not create layer 2 loops, such as ports connected to PCs, servers, and routers (sometimes referred to as a user, or edge, ports) A port with PortFast enabled is always placed in a forwarding state this is true even when STP is running and the root and designated ports are going through their different states So, when STP is running, PortFast ports on the same switch can still forward traffic among themselves, limiting your STP disruption somewhat However, if these devices wanted to talk to devices connected to other switches, they would have to wait until STP completed and the root and designated ports had moved into a forwarding state Ports connected to non-switch or non-bridge devices should be configured with PortFast, such as PCs, servers, and routers However, make sure that you don t enable PortFast on a port connected to another layer 2 switch, since you might inadvertently be creating a layer 2 loop, which will create broadcast storms and mislearning of MAC addressing information
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PortFast Configuration
PortFast works with all versions of STP supported by Cisco switches Configuring the PortFast feature is simple, and you can enable it globally or on an interface-byinterface basis To enable it globally, use this command:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree portfast default
This command enables PortFast on all non-trunking ports on the switch To enable PortFast on an interface, use this configuration:
Switch(config)# interface type [slot_#/]port_# Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast [trunk]
The optional trunk parameter enables PortFast on trunk connections to nonswitch devices, such as a router or server with a trunk card
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