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STP example network
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LAN Segment-D G Switch-4 000000011787
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Electing the Root Switch
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The first thing that occurs once all these switches are booted up is the election of the root switch The switches share BPDUs with one another to elect the root In this example, all of the switches are using the default priority (32,768) Remember that the switch with the lowest switch ID is elected as root Since all of the switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address, which is Switch1, is chosen as the root switch Based on the election process, the new network topology looks like that shown in Figure 14-7
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Choosing Root Ports for Each Switch
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After the root switch is elected, each non-root switch must choose one of its ports that it will use to reach the root, called the root port Let s take this one switch at a time so that you can see the decision process in detail With Switch-1, which is the root switch, there are no root ports if you recall, all ports on the root switch are designated ports Switch-2 has two ports to use to reach the root: E and F When Switch-1 generates its BPDUs on ports I and J, the original path cost is set to 0 As these BPDUs are received by other switches, the receiving switch increments the path cost by the cost of the port on which the BPDU was received As the BPDU comes into port E, Switch-2 increments the path cost to 20 and for port F, 10 The first check that Switch-2 makes is to compare the path costs Port F has the best path cost and therefore is chosen as the root port, which is shown as RP in Figure 14-8 Switch-3 also has two paths to reach the root: via ports C and D Port C s accumulated path cost is 10, while D s cost is 70
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FIGURE 14-7
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LAN Segment-B A Switch-5 00000001A134 10 Switch-2 000100010001 E 20 J 10 LAN Segment-C 40 Switch-3 00010000AC1D H 20 LAN Segment-A D 20 C 10 I Switch-1 000000011234 ROOT 10
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LAN Segment-D G Switch-4 000000011787
14: Switches and Redundancy
FIGURE 14-8 RP
LAN Segment-B A Switch-5 00000001A134 10 Switch-2 000100010001 B 10 F RP LAN Segment-D RP G Switch-4 000000011787 40 Switch-3 00010000AC1D H 20 RP LAN Segment-A D 20 C LAN Segment-C 10 10 10 I Switch-1 000000011234 ROOT J 10 E 20
Root ports
Therefore, port C is chosen as the root port Switch-4 also has two ports to use to access the root: H and G Port H has an accumulated path cost of 30, while G has a cost of 50, causing Switch-4 to choose port H as the root port Switch-5 s two ports, A and B, have accumulated path costs of 10 and 40, respectively, causing Switch-5 to choose Port A as the root port Note that all the switches in the network are simultaneously running STP and figuring out for themselves who the root switch is and which port on themselves should be the root port This is also true for choosing a designated port on a segment, discussed in the next section
Choosing Designated Ports for Each Segment
After the root ports are chosen, each switch will figure out, on a segment-bysegment basis, whether its connected port to the segment should be a designated port or not Remember that the designated port on a segment is responsible for moving traffic back and forth between the segment and the rest of the layer 2 network The segments themselves, of course, are completely unaware of this process of choosing a designated port the switches are figuring this out When choosing a designated port, the first thing that is examined is the accumulated path cost for the switch (connected to the segment) to reach the root For two switches connected to the same segment, the switch with the lowest accumulated path cost will be the designated switch for that segment and its port connected to that segment becomes a designated port
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