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Cisco switches support three types of STP, as displayed in Table 14-2 The default configuration on Cisco switches is a separate instance of STP per VLAN, one root switch for all the VLANs, and no load sharing
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FIGURE 14-12 ROOT Switch-A
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Switch-C
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14: Switches and Redundancy
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TABLE 14-2
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Description
8021d per VLAN with Cisco-proprietary extensions (PortFast, UplinkFast, BackboneFast) 8021w (RSTP) per VLAN 8021s, referred to as multiple STP, combines Cisco s PVST+ with IEEE standards
STP Types
This book focuses only on PVRST+, and briefly at that To enable PVRST+, use the following command:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst
Once enabled, you can view the STP on a per-VLAN basis with this command:
Switch# show spanning-tree vlan VLAN_# [detail]
Here s an example of this command:
Switch# show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol rstp Root ID Priority 32768 This bridge is root Hello Time 2 sec Mag Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Bridge ID Priority 32768 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000001c11111 Hello Time 2 sec Mag Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Interface Role Sts Cost PiorNbr Type --------- ---- --- ---- -------- ---Fa0/1 Desg FWD 19 1281 P2p Fa0/2 Desg FWD 19 1282 P2p Fa0/3 Desg FWD 19 1283 P2p
In this example, the switch is the root for VLAN 10 and RSTP is being used Notice that all of its ports are designated ports (Desg) and are in a forwarding state (FWD) To troubleshoot problems with PVRST+, use the debug spanning-tree pvst+ command; to troubleshoot problems with ports changing state within STP, use debug spanning-tree switch state
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
PVST+ and RSTP Optimization
To understand the advantages offered by PVST+ and RSTP, examine Figure 14-13 This example shows two VLANs, numbered 1 and 2 The default behavior with Cisco s switches is that a single root switch is used for all VLANs, based on the switch with the lowest switch ID In this instance, this is Switch-A Notice that based on RSTP s calculation, Switch-C disabled its port to Switch-B for both its VLANs The downside of this design is that of the two connections to the distribution layer, only one is being utilized on the access switch A better design is shown in Figure 14-14 However, to obtain this kind of topology, you must tune your network, making sure that Switch-A is the root for VLAN 1 and Switch-B is the root for VLAN 2 With this kind of design, you can actually utilize both of your uplink connections on your access layer switch up to the distribution layer switches In Figure 14-14, VLAN 1 will use the left-hand uplink connection and VLAN 2 the right-hand uplink connection Based on the design in Figure 14-14, make sure the default gateway for VLAN 1 is Switch-A (assuming it s a layer 3 switch) and for VLAN 2 Switch-B (assuming it s a layer 3 switch) If you don t configure it this way, but have the default gateway associated with Switch-A, VLAN 2 s traffic will have to go from the access layer switch, to Switch-B, and then across the EtherChannel to Switch-A before leaving the subnet You can learn more about this in Cisco s CCNP Switching course
FIGURE 14-13
VLAN 1: Root VLAN 2: Root Distribution layer Switch-A
PVST+ and RSTP non-optimized
2-Gbps EtherChannel
Switch-B Switch-C
Access layer
VLAN 1: Forward VLAN 2: Forward
VLAN 1: Discarding VLAN 2: Discarding
14: Switches and Redundancy
FIGURE 14-14
VLAN 1: Root Distribution layer Switch-A
2-Gbps EtherChannel
VLAN 2: Root
PVST+ and RSTP optimized
Switch-B Switch-C
Access layer
VLAN 1: Forward VLAN 2: Discarding
VLAN 1: Discarding VLAN 2: Forward
Remember that the topology in Figure 14-14 is created by you: you must manually change each switch s priority to create the desired topology The commands to accomplish this include the following:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan VLAN_# root primary Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan VLAN_# root secondary Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan VLAN_# priority priority_#
Remember that the default priority for a switch is 32,768 The first command changes the switch s priority to 4096 for the specified VLAN The second command changes it to 8192 for the specified VLAN The third allows you to customize the priority for the specified VLAN Based on the example in Figure 14-14, Switch-A s configuration would look like this:
Switch-A(config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst Switch-A(config)# spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary Switch-A(config)# spanning-tree vlan 2 root secondary
Switch-B s configuration would look like this:
Switch-B(config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst Switch-B(config)# spanning-tree vlan 2 root primary Switch-B(config)# spanning-tree vlan 1 root secondary
The only difference between these two configurations is that the priorities for the primary and secondary are switched on the two VLANs to allow for the use of both uplinks from Switch-C, the access layer switch
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