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To simplify your troubleshooting process, disable as many features as necessary For example, if you have EtherChannels enabled, disabling the channel will help determine whether the channel itself is not functioning correctly and possibly creating the layer 2 loop If you are not certain which switch is the root switch, log into the switch that logically should be the root and force it to become the root by changing its priority to 1 with the spanning-tree vlan VLAN_# priority command A good step on your part should be to include the MAC addresses of each switch in your network topology diagramThen, when troubleshooting loop problems, you ll find it much easier to determine whether a rogue switch was introduced into the topology that might be creating the loop
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14: Switches and Redundancy
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Make sure that all your switches are running either 8021d or 8021w (RSTP), preferably the latter Use the show spanning-tree command to verify this as well as whether or not the switch is playing the role of root for a VLAN
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INSIDE THE EXAM
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Cisco s exam focuses more on the concepts of this chapter, rather than on the configuration Be familiar with Cisco s three-layer hierarchy, since you might see it in illustrations on the exam Understand the three issues with layer 2 loops (multiple frame copies, broadcast storms, and mislearning MAC addresses) and the problems these issues create Understand when PortFast is best used and the advantages that PVST+ provides when implementing VLANs
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Be familiar with the port states with RSTP: discarding, learning, and forwarding Understand the difference between an alternate and a backup port The configuration and tuning of RSTP is not emphasized on the exam
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Understand how STP works: how the root switch is elected, how root and designated ports are chosen, and the different states a port can be in Don t be surprised if you are presented with a diagram and must choose answers dealing with these functions on the exam: Review the Simple STP Example section until you are comfortable with the STP terms and how the STP functions are derived Remember that the switch ID is created from the switch s priority and MAC address Be familiar with how long a port stays in a particular state for 8021d STP
EtherChannels
The configuration of EtherChannels is not emphasized on the exam; however, you need to understand what they are and when they are used
STP Troubleshooting
Remember what symptoms you look for to identify a layer 2 loop Be familiar with the configuration remedies in dealing with layer 2 loops
Certi cation Summary
CERTIFICATION SUMMARY
Bridges have three main functions: learn, forward, and remove loops They learn by placing source MAC addresses and associated bridge ports in a port address or CAM table They will flood traffic if the destination address is a multicast, broadcast, or unknown unicast destination STP is used to remove layer 2 loops BPDUs are used by STP to learn about other neighboring switches These are generated every 2 seconds as multicasts When running STP, a root switch is elected the one with the lowest switch or bridge ID The switch ID is composed of a priority and the switch s MAC address Each switch chooses a root port to reach the root switch the one with the lowest accumulated path cost Each segment has one port on one switch that becomes a designated port, which is used to forward traffic to and from the segment This is typically the port on the switch with the lowest accumulated path cost There are five port states: blocking (20 seconds), listening (15 seconds), learning (15 seconds), forwarding, and disabled PortFast puts a port immediately into forwarding mode and should be used only on non-switch ports PVST+ has an instance of STP running per VLAN this is proprietary to Cisco but standardized by IEEE with MSTP RSTP reduces convergence to a few seconds by having switches determine valid alternate root ports and backup designated ports that they can use when topology changes take place PVST+ with RSTP is enabled with the spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst command EtherChannels bundle layer 2 connections between devices, creating a single logical port from STP s perspective Load balancing can then be performed on the ports in the channel PAgP or LACP are used to form the channel No more than eight interfaces can be part of a channel If your CPU and/or port utilization is high, you might have a layer 2 loop Typically you should use a protocol analyzer and look for multiple copies of the same frame in your frame captures
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