qr code c# sample 14: Switches and Redundancy in Objective-C

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14: Switches and Redundancy
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Layer 2 Redundancy
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There are three layers to a campus design: access, distribution, and core Redundancy in layer 2 networks can create loops that can cause multiple
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frame copies, broadcast storms, and/or mislearning MAC addresses
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Spanning Tree Protocol
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STP is defined in 8021d It removes loops from your network The switch with the lowest switch ID (priority + MAC address) is elected as
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the root
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Each switch chooses the best path to the root, and this port is called a root
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port Each segment needs a switch port to access the rest of the network this port is called a designated port
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BPDUs are used to elect root switches and to share topology information
BPDUs are multicasts that are advertised every 2 seconds
There are five STP port states: blocking (only processing BPDUs 20 seconds),
listening (only processing BPDUs 15 seconds), learning (processing BPDUs and building the CAM table 15 seconds), forwarding (processing BPDUs, building the CAM table, and forwarding user traffic), and disabled (the port is not enabled) Root and designated ports will eventually move into a forwarding state, which can take between 30 and 50 seconds
PortFast keeps a port in a forwarding state when STP is recalculating; it
should not be used on switch-to-switch connections and thus could lead to inadvertent loops
PVST+ is proprietary to Cisco and allows for a separate STP instance per VLAN
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP has three port states: discarding, learning, and forwarding RTSP supports two additional port types: alternate (secondary to a root port)
and backup (secondary to a designated port)
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EtherChannels
From STP s perspective, an EtherChannel, which is a grouping of layer 2
physical connections between devices, is seen as a single logical connection
Ports must be configured identically in an EtherChannel PAgP or LACP can
be used to form a channel
STP Troubleshooting
Look for high CPU and/or port utilization as a symptom of a broadcast storm Use a protocol analyzer and look for multiple frame copies to determine
whether you have a loop
14: Switches and Redundancy
SELF TEST
The following Self Test questions will help you measure your understanding of the material presented in this chapter Read all the choices carefully, as there may be more than one correct answer Choose all correct answers for each question
Layer 2 Redundancy
1 Which of the following would not be a symptom of a layer 2 loop A B C D Broadcast flooding Multiple frame copies Learning MAC addresses on incorrect ports None of these
Spanning Tree Protocol
2 The root switch is the one elected with the __________ A B C D A B C D A B C D lowest MAC address highest MAC address lowest switch ID highest switch ID root port alternate port backup port designated port It remains there for 15 seconds It forwards BPDUs and builds the CAM table It remains there for 20 seconds It forwards BPDUs
3 The switch port that is chosen to forward traffic for a segment is called a __________
4 Which is true concerning a port in a listening state (choose two)
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
5 How many port states are there in RSTP A 3 B 4
Self Test
C 5 D 6 6 What port role will be assigned to a port that has the second best path to the root switch A B C D 7 A B C D Root Designated Alternate Backup spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst spanning-tree state rapid-pvst stp state rapid-pvst spanning-tree mode rtsp
Which command enables RSTP with PVRST+ on a switch
EtherChannels
8 Which of the following is true concerning EtherChannels A B C D You can have up to six ports in a channel You can have up to eight channels on a switch Ports must be configured identically to form a channel RSTP dynamically groups ports into a channel
STP Troubleshooting
9 What symptom should you look for to determine whether you have a layer 2 loop A B C D High number of broadcast and/or multicast frames High port utilization User switch interfaces dropping and reconnecting Port address tables not being updated
10 What tool would you use to determine whether you had a broadcast storm caused by a layer 2 loop
A B C D
show interface command Protocol analyzer debug broadcast command traceroute command
14: Switches and Redundancy
SELF TEST ANSWERS
Layer 2 Redundancy
1 A Switches flood broadcasts by default; seeing the same broadcast again and again could indicate a broadcast storm and a layer 2 loop B and C are symptoms of a layer 2 loop Since there is an incorrect answer, D is incorrect
Spanning Tree Protocol
2 C The switch with the lowest switch ID is elected as the root switch A and B are incorrect because the decision is based on the switch ID, which includes the switch s priority and MAC address D is incorrect because it is the lowest, not the highest switch ID 3 D The switch port that is chosen to forward traffic for a segment is called a designated port A is incorrect because the root port is the port that the switch uses to reach the root B, the alternate port, is used in RSTP and is a secondary root port, and C, the backup port, is used in RSTP and is a secondary designated port 4 A and D In a listening state, the port processes and forwards BPDUs A port stays in the listening state for 15 seconds B occurs in the learning state C is the time period for the blocking state
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