qr code c# sample 2: OSI Reference Model in Objective-C

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2: OSI Reference Model
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solution to this translation process Routers don t actually translate between different frame or layer 2 protocol types; instead, they strip off the layer 2 frame, make a routing decision on the layer 3 packet, and then encapsulate the layer 3 packet in the correct layer 2 frame type for the interface the packet needs to exit This process is described more thoroughly later in this chapter in the section Encapsulation and De-Encapsulation as well as in 10 Another advantage routers have over layer 2 components is that they contain broadcast problems When a router receives a broadcast, it processes that broadcast, but by default, it will not forward the broadcast out any of its other ports This is different from bridges and switches, which flood broadcast traffic If broadcasts are affecting the bandwidth and performance of your network, you should break up your network into multiple broadcast domains and use a router to route between the different domains Each broadcast domain in a network needs a unique layer 3 network number Broadcasts are discussed later in the chapter in the Layer 2: The Data Link Layer section Common tools used to troubleshoot layer 3 problems include ping, traceroute, and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)These tools are discussed in more depth in 6
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Layer 2:The Data Link Layer
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The second layer in the OSI Reference Model is the data link layer Whereas the network layer provides for logical addresses for components, the data link layer provides for physical, or hardware, addresses These hardware addresses are commonly called Media Access Control (MAC) addresses The data link layer also defines how a networking component accesses the media to which it is connected and defines the media s frame type and transmission method The frame includes the Most wide area network fields and components the data link layer uses (WAN) protocols primarily function at the to communicate with devices on the same wire data link and physical layers or layer 2 topology This communication occurs only for components on the same data link layer media type (or same piece of wire), within the same network segment To traverse layer 2 protocols, Ethernet to Token Ring, for instance, a router is typically used The data link layer is also responsible for taking bits (binary 1s and 0s) from the physical layer and reassembling them into the original data link layer frame The data link layer does error detection and will discard bad frames It typically does not
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Layers of the OSI Reference Model
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perform error correction, as some transport layer protocols do; however, some data link layer protocols do support error correction functions Examples of data link layer protocols and standards for local area network (LAN) connections include Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 8022, 8023, and 8025; Ethernet II; and ANSI s FDDI Examples of WAN protocols include Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC), Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), and X25 Bridges, switches, and network interface controllers or cards (NICs) are the primary networking components functioning at the data link layer, which is discussed in more depth in 4
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The data link layer de nes hardware (MAC) addresses as well as the communication process that occurs within a media type Switches and bridges function at the data link layer Examples of data link
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layer protocols and standards include IEEE s 8022, 8023, Ethernet II, HDLC, PPP, and Frame Relay Error detection occurs here, but not correction (no retransmission, only dropping bad frames)
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The data link layer is also responsible for defining the format of layer 2 frames as well as the mechanics of how devices communicate with each other over the physical layer The data link layer is responsible for the following:
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Defining the MAC or hardware addresses Defining the physical or hardware topology for connections Defining how the network layer protocol is encapsulated in the data link
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