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Routing Protocol Metrics
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Metric
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Bandwidth Cost Delay Hop count Load MTU Reliability
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Routing Protocols
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EIGRP OSPF EIGRP RIP EIGRP EIGRP EIGRP
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The capacity of the links in Kbps (T1 = 1554) Measurement in the inverse of the bandwidth of the links Time it takes to reach the destination How many layer 3 hops away from the destination The path with the least utilization The path that supports the largest frame sizes The path with the least amount of errors or down time
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15: Routers and Routing
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Be familiar with the different metrics that routing protocols use such as those shown in Table 15-3
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protocols use only a single metric For instance, RIP uses hop count as a metric, and OSPF uses cost Other routing protocols use multiple metric values to choose a best path to a destination For instance, EIGRP can use bandwidth, delay, reliability, load, and maximum transmission unit (MTU) when choosing a best path to a destination
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Distance Vector Protocols
Of the three types of routing protocols distance vector, link state, and hybrid distance vector protocols are the simplest in their implementation Distance vector routing protocols use distance (accumulated metric value) and direction (vector) to find paths to destinations Most distance vector protocols use the Bellman-Ford algorithm (discussed shortly) for finding paths to destination networks Sometimes these protocols are referred to as routing by rumor, since the routers learn routing information from directly connected neighbors, and these neighbors might have learned these networks from other neighboring routers RIP is an example of a routing protocol that is a distance vector, and it is discussed in more depth in 19
Advertising Updates
One of the mechanisms of a routing protocol is to share routing and reachability information with neighboring routers Some protocols use local broadcasts to disseminate information, some use multicasts, and some use unicasts Distance vector protocols typically use periodic local broadcasts with a destination IP address of 255255255255 to share routing information These protocols do this religiously, whether or not something has changed: Once their periodic timer expires, they broadcast their routing information to any devices connected to their interfaces Note that distance vector protocols really don t care who listens to these updates, nor do they verify whether neighboring routers received the broadcast update Routers running distance vector protocols learn who their neighbors are by listening for routing broadcasts on their interfaces No formal handshaking process or hello process occurs to discover who are the neighboring routers Distance vector protocols assume that through the broadcast process, neighbors will be learned, and if a neighbor fails, the missed broadcasts from these neighbors will eventually be detected And even if changes occur and your router misses an update from a neighbor, it is assumed that your router will learn about the change in the next broadcast update
Dynamic Routing Protocols
Processing Updates
When a distance vector protocol receives a routing update from a neighboring router, it performs these steps: 1 Increments the metrics of the incoming routes in the advertisement (for RIP, add 1 to the advertised hop count of the route) 2 Compares the network numbers in the routing update from the neighbor to what the router has in its routing table 3 If the neighbor s information is better, places it in the routing table and remove the old entry 4 If the neighbor s information is worse, ignores it 5 If the neighbor s information is exactly the same as the entry already in the table, resets the timer for the entry in the routing table (in other words, the router already learned about this route from the same neighbor) 6 If the neighbor s information is a different path to a known destination network, but with the same metric as the existing network in the routing table, the router will add it to the routing table along with the old one This assumes you have not exceeded the maximum number of equal-cost paths for this destination network number In this situation, your router is learning about the same network number from two different neighbors, and both neighbors are advertising the network number with the same metric These six steps are generally referred to as the Bellman-Ford algorithm As you can see from step 6, Cisco supports load balancing for equal-cost paths to a destination within a particular route type, such as RIP routes Since distance vector protocols are the simplest of the three protocol types, they are easy to set up and troubleshoot They have very low overhead on the router, requiring few CPU cycles and memory to process updates: they receive an incoming update, increment the metrics, compare the results to the existing routes in the routing table, and update the routing table if necessary
Remember the advantages of distance vector protocols and how they process updates with the BellmanFord algorithm Distance vector protocols
use broadcasts to disseminate routing information and do not care if neighbors listen to their routing updates
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