qr code c# sample 15: Routers and Routing in Objective-C

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15: Routers and Routing
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Link state protocols use an algorithm called the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm, invented by Edsger W Dijkstra, to find the best path to a destination Whereas distance vector protocols rely on rumors from other neighbors about remote routes, link state protocols will learn the complete topology of the network: which routers are connected to which networks Because of the size of a network, this can create scalability problems Therefore, link state protocols typically contain capabilities to limit the scope of their learning process, limiting a router s knowledge of the network topology to a smaller number of routers and routes Examples of link state protocols include OSPF and IS-IS OSPF is covered in more depth in 20 IS-IS is an ISO link state protocol It was originally developed by DEC as the DECnet Phase V routing protocol It can route for both TCP/IP traffic and Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) traffic IS-IS provides for more scalability than OSPF but is more complex to configure Some ISPs use IS-IS as the routing protocol for their own networks IS-IS is covered in Cisco s CCNP exams
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Whereas distance vector protocols use local broadcasts to disseminate routing information, link state protocols use multicasts A distance protocol will send out its routing table religiously on its periodic interval whether there are changes or not Link state protocols are smarter They multicast what is called a link state advertisement (LSA), which is a piece of routing information that contains who originated the advertisement and what the network number is LSAs are typically generated only when changes are made in the network, which is more resource-friendly to your network devices In other words, periodic updates are rare occurrences Whereas distance vector protocols use local broadcasts, which are processed by every machine on the segment, link state protocols use multicasts, which are processed only by other devices running the link state protocol Plus, link state protocols send their updates reliably A destination router, when receiving an LSA update, will respond to the source router with an acknowledgment This process is different from distance vector protocols, which don t verify that a routing update was received from neighboring routers As a router learns routes from the LSAs of routers in the network, it builds a complete topology of the network what routers are connected to other routers and what the network numbers are This is stored in a local topological database Whereas distance vector protocols are referred to as routing by rumor, link state
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Dynamic Routing Protocols
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protocols are referred to as routing by propaganda, since link state routers are learning which routers are sourcing (connected to) a network number The LSAs gathered by a link state router are then stored in a local database, sometimes referred to as a topology table Any time there is a change in the database, the router runs the SPF algorithm The SPF algorithm builds an inverted tree, with the router itself at the top, and other routers and their connected network segments beneath it This algorithm is somewhat similar to the STP algorithm that layer 2 devices use to remove loops Depending LSAs are ooded when on the tree structure and the metrics used, the a change occurs for a network Upon link state router then populates the routing receiving an LSA update, the local table with the best (shortest) paths to the topology database is updated accordingly networks in the SPF tree
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Advantages of Link State Protocols
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One of the advantages of link state protocols is that they use a hierarchical structure that helps limit the distance that an LSA travels This reduces the likelihood that a change in the network will impact every router This process is different from that of distance vector protocols, which use a flat topology With distance vector protocols, a change in one part of the network will eventually impact every router in the network Depending on the configuration of routers in a link state protocol, this is not necessarily true For instance, OSPF uses areas to help contain changes; therefore, a change in one area won t necessarily impact other areas A second advantage of link state protocols is that they use multicasts to share routing information Multicasts are sent to a group of devices, whereas broadcasts are sent to everyone Only other routers running the link state protocol will process these LSA packets Plus, link state routers send out only incremental updates Incremental updates are updates sent out when a change occurs in the state of the network This is much more advantageous than what distance vector protocols do: broadcast updates based on a periodic timer, which is typically either 30 or 60 seconds Once all the link state routers are booted up and they learn the topology of the network, updates are typically sent out only when changes take place, which shouldn t be that often The advantage of this process is that you are using your network s bandwidth and resources more efficiently than with distance vector protocols A third advantage that link state protocols have over distance vector protocols is that they support classless routing Classless routing allows you to summarize a large
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