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15: Routers and Routing
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group of contiguous routes into a smaller number of routes This process is called Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) and Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) These concepts were discussed in depth in 8 By summarizing routes, you are making the routing process more efficient First, you are advertising a smaller number of routes And second, in order for the summarized route to fail, all of the subnets or networks in the summarization must fail As an example, you might have a WAN link that is flapping A flapping route is going up and down, up and down, over and over again This can create serious performance problems for link state protocols When you perform summarization, if the specific route within a summarized route is flapping, this will not affect the status of the summarized route and thus won t impact many of the routers in your network Third, by summarizing routes, you reduce the size of your router s routing link state database, which will reduce the number of CPU cycles required to run the SPF algorithm and update the routing table, as well as reduce your router s memory requirements for the routing protocol A fourth advantage is that with the use of the SPF algorithm, routing loops will not be included in the population of the routing table: by examining the inverted tree, loops can be easily detected and not included in a routing table Routing loops can create problems with distance vector protocols, however this problem is discussed in the section Distance Vector Protocol Problems and Solutions section later in this chapter
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Disadvantages of Link State Protocols
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Given the advantages of link state protocols, they do have disadvantages For instance, even though link state protocols can scale a network to a much larger size than distance vector protocols, link state protocols are more CPU- and memoryintensive Link state protocols have to maintain more tables in memory: a neighbor table, a link state database, and a routing table When changes take place in the network, the routers must update the link state database, run the SPF algorithm, build the SPF tree, and then rebuild the routing table, which requires a lot more CPU cycles than a distance vector protocol s approach: increment the metrics of incoming routes and compare this to the current routes in the routing table As an example, a flapping route in a link state network can affect the processing on many routers, especially if the change is occurring every 10 to 15 seconds The advantage that distance vector protocols have is that the only time the routers have to perform a function is when they receive the periodic updates, and then processing these updates is router-friendly
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Dynamic Routing Protocols
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Link state protocols use the SPF algorithm to choose the best path They are more CPU- and memory-intensive than distance vector protocols However, they are more network-friendly in that
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they use multicasts to disseminate routing information and only advertise changes Plus, with route summarization and hierarchical routing, link state protocols can scale to very large network sizes
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Hybrid Protocols
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A hybrid protocol takes the advantages of both distance vector and link state protocols and merges them into a new protocol Typically, hybrid protocols are based on a distance vector protocol but contain many of the features and advantages of link state protocols Examples of hybrid protocols include RIPv2, EIGRP, and BGP RIPv2 is covered in more depth in 19, and EIGRP is covered in 21 BGP is beyond the scope of this book but is heavily emphasized in the CCNP certification As an example of a hybrid protocol s approach, Cisco s EIGRP reduces the CPU and memory overhead by acting like a distance vector protocol when it comes to processing routing updates; but instead of sending out periodic updates like a distance vector protocol, EIGRP sends out incremental, reliable updates via multicast messages, providing a more network- and router-friendly environment EIGRP supports many other features of link state protocols, such as VLSM and route summarization BGP is also a hybrid protocol, drawing a lot of its functionality from distance vector protocols It is based on a standard (RFC 1772) and is used as the de facto routing protocol to interconnect ISPs, and sometimes companies, on the Internet Unlike most of the other protocols that use multicasts or broadcasts for dissemination, BGP sets up a TCP connection (port 179) to a neighboring peer and uses TCP to share connection information Like EIGRP and OSPF, BGP supports route summarization Unlike these protocols, BGP was meant to route between autonomous systems It used to be that running a distance vector protocol such as RIP was sufficient for small to medium networks, given the overhead involved with link state protocols With the advancement of hardware, distance vector protocols are not commonly used today, even in smaller networks; the most common dynamic IGP protocol is OSPF, with EIGRP a distant second In SOHO networks, static routes are the most common routing mechanism used
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