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Solution: Split Horizon
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Distance vector protocols implement a few solutions to deal with routing loops Split horizon is used with small routing loops Split horizon states that if a neighboring router sends a route to a router, the receiving router will not propagate this route back to the advertising router on the same interface
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Distance Vector Protocol Problems and Solutions
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FIGURE 15-8
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Split horizon example
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Consider Figure 15-8 to see how split horizon functions RouterA advertises 19216810 to RouterB out its E1 interface Without split horizon in effect, RouterB could advertise this network right back to RouterA Obviously, RouterA would ignore this, since the directly connected path is better than RouterB s advertised path However, what would happen if RouterA s E0 interface failed and it received an update from RouterB stating that it had an alternative path to 19216810 In this situation, the network obviously has connectivity problems With split horizon, though, RouterB would never advertise 19216810 back to RouterA Therefore, Split horizon prevents if RouterA s E0 interface would fail, both a router from advertising a route back RouterA and RouterB would realize that there out the same interface where the router is no alternative path to reach this network originally learned the route until RouterA s E0 connection is fixed
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Solution: Route Poisoning and Hold-Down Timers
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While split horizon is used to solve small routing loop problems, distance vector protocols use two mechanisms to deal with large routing loop problems: route poisoning and hold-down timers Route poisoning is a derivative of split horizon When a router detects that one of its connected routes has failed, the router will poison the route by assigning an infinite metric to it In RIP, the route is assigned a hop count of 16 (15, by default, is the maximum), thus making it an unreachable network When a router advertises A poisoned route has an a poisoned route to its neighbors, its neighbors in nite metric assigned to it A poison break the rule of split horizon and send back to reverse causes the router to break the the originator the same poisoned route, called split horizon rule and advertise the a poison reverse This ensures that everyone poisoned route out all interfaces received the original poisoned route update
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15: Routers and Routing
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In order to give the routers enough time to propagate the poisoned route and to ensure that no routing loops occur while propagation of the poisoned route occurs, the routers implement a hold-down mechanism During this period, the routers will freeze the poisoned route in their routing tables for the period of the hold-down timer, which is typically three times the interval of the routing broadcast update When hold-down timers are used, a poisoned route will remain in the routing table until the timer expires However, if a router with a poisoned route receives a routing update from a neighboring router with a metric that is the same or better than the original route, the router will abort the hold-down period, remove the poisoned route, and put the new route in its table Also, if a router receives a worse route from a neighboring router, the router treats this as a suspect route and assumes that this route is probably part of a routing loop, ignoring the update Of course, the worse metric route really might be a valid alternative path to the network; however, the function of hold-down timers and poisoning routes prohibits the use of this route until the hold period expires While in a hold-down state, a poisoned route in the routing table will appear as possibly down One of the problems of using hold-down timers is that they cause the distance vector routing protocol to converge very slowly if the hold-down period is 180 seconds, you can t use a valid alternative path with a worse metric until the holddown period expires Therefore, your users will lose their connections to this network for at least 3 minutes
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Hold-down timers are used to keep the poisoned route in the routing table long enough so that the poisoned route has a chance to be propagated to all
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