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Unlike RIP, which uses hop count as a metric, OSPF uses cost Cost is actually the inverse of the bandwidth of a link: the faster the speed of the connection, the lower the cost The most preferred path is the one with the lowest accumulated cost value By using cost as a metric, OSPF will choose more intelligent paths than RIP (metrics are discussed in more depth in the OSPF Metric Values section later in the chapter) Remember that on synchronous serial links, no matter what the clock rate of the physical link is, the bandwidth always defaults to 1544 Kbps You ll want to code this correctly with the bandwidth Interface Subconfiguration mode command (discussed in 16) This is important if you have multiple synchronous serial paths to a destination, especially if they have different clock rates OSPF supports load balancing of up to 16 equal-cost paths to a single destination; however, only four equal-cost paths are used by default Remember that if you don t configure the bandwidth metric correctly on your serial interfaces, your router might accidentally include paths with different clock rates, which can cause load-balancing issues
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20: OSPF Routing
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For example, if you have one serial connection clocked at 1544 Kbps and another clocked at 256 Kbps and you don t change OSPF uses cost as the bandwidth values, OSPF will see both a metric, which is the inverse of the connections as 1544 Kbps and attempt to bandwidth of a link use both when reaching a single destination across these links This can create throughput problems when the router is performing load balancing half of the connections will go down one link and half down the other, creating congestion problems for the 256 Kbps connection
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As mentioned, OSPF is a link state protocol like that generically described in 15 However, each link state protocol, such as OSPF and IS-IS, has its own unique features and characteristics This section introduces you to how OSPF operates in a single-area design
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Each router in an OSPF network needs a unique ID this must be unique not just within an area, but within the entire OSPF network The ID is used to provide a unique identity to the OSPF router The ID is included in any OSPF messages the router generates that other OSPF routers will process The router ID is chosen according to one of the following criteria:
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The highest IP address on the router s active loopback interfaces is used (this
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is a logical interface on a router)
If no loopback interface exists with an IP address, the highest IP address on
its active interfaces is used when the router boots up The router ID is used by the router to announce itself to the other OSPF routers in the network This ID must be unique If no loopback interfaces are configured, the router will use the highest IP address from one of its active physical interfaces
OSPF Operation
Remember how a router acquires its router ID for OSPF: the active loopback with the highest IP address or the active physical interface with the highest IP address
If no active interface exists, the OSPF process will not start and therefore you will not have any OSPF routes in your routing table It is highly recommended, therefore, that you use a loopback interface because it is always up and thus the router can obtain a router ID and start OSPF
Finding Neighbors
An OSPF router learns about its OSPF neighbors and builds its adjacency and topology tables by sharing link state advertisements (LSAs), which exist in different types When learning about the neighbors to which a router is connected, as well as keeping tabs on known neighbors, OSPF routers will generate LSA hello messages every 10 seconds When a neighbor is discovered and an adjacency is formed with the neighbor, a router expects to see hello messages from the neighbor If a neighbor s hello is not seen within the dead interval time, which defaults to 40 seconds, the neighbor is declared dead When this occurs, the router will advertise this information, via an LSA message, to other neighboring OSPF routers Whereas RIP accepts routing updates from just about any other RIP router (unless RIPv2 with authentication is configured), OSPF has some rules concerning if and how routing information should be shared First, before a router will accept any routing information from another OSPF router, the routers must build an adjacency between them, on their connected interfaces When this adjacency is built, the two routers (on the connected interfaces) are called neighbors, indicating a special relationship between the two In order for two routers to become neighbors, the following must match on each router:
The area number The hello and dead interval timers on their connected interfaces The OSPF password (optional), if it is configured The area stub flag, indicating the type of area; a stub is used to contain OSPF
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