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MTU sizes on the connected interfaces
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If these items do not match, the routers will not form an adjacency and will ignore each other s routing information
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20: OSPF Routing
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The hello process is used to discover and maintain a neighbor relationship with other OSPF routers In order to form a neighbor relationship, two OSPF routers on the same segment must be in the same area, must have matching
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hello and dead interval timers, must have the same password if authentication is con gured, must be of the same type (stub, not-so-stubby, or no stub), and must have the same MTU size con gured on their interfaces
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Let s assume that you turned on all your routers simultaneously on a segment In this case, the OSPF routers will go through three states, called the exchange process, in determining whether they will become neighbors: 1 Down state The routers have not exchanged any OSPF information with any other router 2 Init state A destination router has received a new router s hello and adds it to its neighbor list (assuming that values in the preceding bullet points match) Note that communication is only unidirectional at this point 3 Two-way state The new router receives a unidirectional reply (from the destination router) to its initial hello packet and adds the destination router to its neighbor database Once the routers have entered a two-way state, they are considered neighbors At this point, an election process takes place to elect the designated router (DR) and the backup designated router (BDR) on the segment
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An OSPF router will not form adjacencies to just any router Instead, a client/server design is implemented in OSPF on each broadcast segment For each multi-access broadcast segment, such as Ethernet, there is a DR and a BDR as well as other OSPF routers, called DROTHERs As an example, if you have 10 VLANs in your switched area, you ll have 10 DRs and 10 BDRs The one exception of a segment not having these two routers is on a WAN point-to-point link When an OSPF router comes up, it forms adjacencies with the DR and the BDR on each multi-access segment to which it is connected; if it is connected to three segments, it will form three sets of adjacencies Any exchange of routing information
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is between these DR/BDR routers and the other OSPF neighbors on a segment (and vice versa) An OSPF router talks to a DR using the IP multicast address of 224006 The DR and the BDR talk to all OSPF routers using the 224005 multicast IP address
OSPF routers use link state advertisements (LSAs) to communicate with each other One type of LSA is a hello, which is used to form neighbor relationships and as a keep-alive function Hellos are generated every ten seconds When sharing link information (directly
connected routes), links are sent to the DR (224006) and the DR disseminates this to everyone else (224005) on the segment On point-to-point links, since no DR/BDR is used, all OSPF packets are addressed to 224005
The OSPF router with the highest priority becomes the DR for the segment If there is a tie, the router with the highest router ID (not IP address on the segment) will become the DR By default, all routers have a priority of 1 (priorities can range from 0 to 255 it s an 8-bit value) If the DR fails, the BDR is promoted to DR and another router is elected as the BDR Figure 20-2 shows an example of the election process, where router E is elected as the DR and router B, the BDR Note that in this example, each router has the default priority, 1; therefore, router E is chosen as the DR since it has the highest router ID and router B as the BDR because it has the second highest router ID If a router has a priority of 0, it will never become the DR or BDR
FIGURE 20-2 BDR ID = 1037821 Priority = 1 A ID = 10378337 Priority = 1 B ID = 10378240 Priority = 1 C
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