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DR and BDR election process
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D ID = 10378125 Priority = 1
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E ID = 10378339 Priority = 1 DR
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20: OSPF Routing
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The DR and BDR priority is changed on an interface-by-interface basis and is configured with the ip ospf priority command within the Interface Subconfiguration mode Once the DR/BDR are elected, they maintain these roles even if other routers form adjacencies with them that have higher priorities: an election or re-election will occur only if no DR or BDR exists
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The router with the highest priority (or highest router ID) becomes the DR note that it is not the highest IP address on the linkThis process is true for
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multi-access segments, but not point-topoint links, where DRs/BDRs are not used Setting the priority to 0 will mean the router will never become the DR or BDR
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After electing the DR/BDR pair, the routers continue to generate hellos to maintain communication This is considered an exstart state, in which the OSPF routers are ready to share link state information The process the routers go through is called an exchange protocol, and is outlined here: 1 Exstart state The DR and BDR form adjacencies with the other OSPF routers on the segment Then, within each adjacency, the router with the highest router ID becomes the master and starts the exchange process first (shares its link state information) Note that the DR is not necessarily the master for the exchange process The remaining router in the adjacency will be the slave 2 Exchange state The master starts sharing link state information first with the slave These are called database description packets (DBDs), also referred to as DDPs The DBDs contain the link state type, the ID of the advertising router, the cost of the advertised link, and the sequence number of the link The slave responds back with an LSACK an acknowledgment to the DBD from the master The slave then compares the DBD s information with its own 3 Loading state If the master has more up-to-date information than the slave, the slave will respond to the master s original DBD with a link state request (LSR) The master will then send a link state update (LSU) with the detailed
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information of the links to the slave The slave will then incorporate this into its local link state database Again, the slave will generate an LSACK to the master to acknowledge the fact that it received the LSU If a slave has more up-to-date information, it will repeat the exchange and loading states 4 Full state Once the master and the slave are synchronized, they are considered to be in a full state To summarize these four steps, OSPF routers share a type of LSA message in order to disclose information about available routes; basically, an LSA update message contains a link and a state, as well as other information A link is the router interface on which the update was generated (a connected route) The state is a description of this interface, including the IP address configured on it as well as the relationship this router has with its neighboring router However, OSPF routers will not share this information with just any OSPF router: just between themselves and the DR/ BDR on a segment
OSPF routers share information about their connected routes with the DR/BDR, which includes the link state type, the ID of the advertising router, the cost of the advertised link, and the sequence number of the linkThis is different from distance vector protocols
Distance vector protocols share their entire routing table with their neighbors with the exception of routes learned from the same interface of the neighbor (split horizon) and the connected route of the interface where the neighbor resides
OSPF uses incremental updates after entering a full state This means that whenever changes take place, only the change is shared with the DR, which will then share this information with other routers on the segment Figure 20-3 shows an example of this In this example, Network Z, connected to router C, goes down Router C sends a multicast to the DR and the BDR (with a destination multicast address of 224006), telling them about this change Once the DR and the BDR incorporate the change internally, the DR then tells the other routes on the segment (via a multicast message sent to 224005, which is all OSPF routers) about the change concerning Network Z Any router receiving the update will then share this update to the DRs of other segments to which they are connected
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