qr code c# tutorial Translation Process and Troubleshooting in Objective-C

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Translation Process and Troubleshooting
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shows the returning traffic from 201111 and the translation from the global to the local inside address An asterisk (*) indicates that the packet was fast-switched The number in the brackets ([]) is an identification number of the packet and can be used to correlate this information to packet traces done with an external protocol analyzer or sniffer product You can add the detailed parameter to the debug ip nat command that displays a description of each packet that is a candidate for translation, as well as any errors, such as no more addresses in the global pool to assign to an outbound user
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2307The CD contains a multimedia demonstration of the debug ip nat command on a router
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Translation Process and Troubleshooting
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When troubleshooting problems, it is important that you understand the order of features the router goes through when processing a packet The following sections discuss the steps the routers take before address translation actually takes place
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Local-to-Global Translation
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In local-to-global translation, the packets are being translated from the inside to the outside Here are the steps the IOS takes in processing a packet from an inside interface to an outside interface, including any necessary address translation: 1 If an inbound ACL is applied to the inbound interface, the ACL is processed 2 If you ve configured IPSec (discussed in 25), crypto ACLs are checked to see whether the encrypted traffic terminates on the router; if so, the router decrypts the packets 3 If any inbound rate limit policies are configured, these are then processed and enforced 4 If input accounting is enabled, it is performed 5 If policy routing is configured, this is performed
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23: Address Translation
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6 The packet is routed to the correct interface 7 The packet is compared to the inside-to-outside NAT rules to see whether address translation is necessary; if so, translation takes place 8 If you ve configured IPSec, crypto ACLs are checked to see whether the packet needs to traverse a tunnel to a remote destination; if so, the packet is encrypted 9 If an outbound ACL on the outside interface is configured, the packet is checked to make sure it is allowed to leave the router
Global-to-Local Translation
In global-to-local translation, the packets are being translated from the outside to the inside Here are the steps the IOS takes in processing a packet from an outside interface to an inside interface, including any necessary address translation: 1 If an inbound ACL is applied to the inbound interface, the ACL is processed 2 If you have IPSec configured on the router, the packet is compared to the crypto ACLs and any necessary de-encryption is performed on protected packets 3 If any inbound rate limit policies are configured, these are processed and enforced 4 If input accounting is enabled, it is performed 5 If the traffic matches an address translation policy, the global-to-local translation takes place 6 If policy routing is configured, this is performed 7 The packet is routed to the correct interface 8 If you ve configured IPSec, crypto ACLs are checked to see whether the packet needs to traverse a tunnel to a remote destination; if so, the packet is marked for encryption 9 If an outbound ACL on the outside interface is configured, the packet is checked to make sure it is allowed to leave the router 10 If context-based access control (CBAC) is configured, the inspection process on the packet takes place 11 If TCP intercept is configured, the packet is compared to the thresholds to deal with TCP SYN flood attacks 12 If encryption is necessary, it is performed 13 The packet is queued up on the inside interface and then processed
Translation Process and Troubleshooting
Address Translation Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting problems of traffic flowing through a router is not necessarily an easy task It can become complicated depending on what features you have enabled, as you can see from the preceding two sections Follow these steps when troubleshooting problems you think are related to address translation: 1 Verify your NAT commands to ensure that your configuration is correct, including the ACL with the permit statements that specify traffic that should be dynamically translated 2 Check to see whether the router is actually translating the packets for the user with the show ip nat translations command 3 Use the show ip nat statistics command to see whether translations are actually occurring remember that the output is static and you ll need to re-execute it multiple times to update the statistics For example, by sending 5 ICMP echoes through the router that match a NAT translation rule, you should see the hit-count increment by 5 4 Use the debug ip nat [detailed] command to see if translation is occurring or not; make sure enough addresses are available in a corresponding global NAT pool when performing dynamic NAT 5 Verify that you have correctly configured the router s interfaces for NAT as inside or outside with the ip nat inside and ip nat outside Interface Subconfiguration mode command 6 Use the show access-lists command to see if hit counts appear on the permit statements for packets that should be translated 7 Make sure the router can route the packet to the destination by looking at the routing table: show ip route 8 If the packet is being translated, but you are not getting any replies for the user traffic, such as echo replies when using ping, examine any ACLs on the router to make sure that the traffic can get back through the router with the show access-lists command: look for incrementing hit counts on deny statements
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