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Packet-switched connections, such as Frame
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Relay and X25 WANs primarily operate at the physical and data link layers
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Cell-switched connections, such as ATM
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and SMDS The following sections introduce you to these four connection types
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Leased-Line Connections
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A leased-line connection is basically a dedicated circuit connection between two sites It simulates a single cable connection between the local and remote sites Leased lines are best suited when both of these conditions hold:
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The distance between the two sites is small, making the least-line connection
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A constant amount of traffic occurs between two sites and you need to
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guarantee bandwidth for certain applications Even though leased lines can provide guaranteed bandwidth and minimal delay for connections, other available solutions, such as ATM, can provide the same features The main disadvantage of leased lines is their cost they are typically the most expensive WAN solution Another disadvantage is that each connection to a site requires a separate interface on your router For example, if you had a central
Wide Area Networking Overview
office router that needed access to four remote sites, the central office router would need four WAN interfaces for terminating the four leased lines With Frame Relay and ATM, you could use one WAN interface to provide the same connectivity Leased lines use synchronous serial connections, with their data rates ranging from 2400 bps all the way up to 45 Mbps, in what is referred to as a DS3 connection A synchronous serial connection allows you to send and receive information simultaneously without having to wait for any signal from the remote side Nor does a synchronous connection need to indicate when it is beginning to send something or the end of a transmission These two things, plus how clocking is done, are the three major differences between synchronous and asynchronous connections asynchronous connections are typically used for dialup connections, such as modems If you purchase a leased line, you will need the following equipment:
DTE
A router with a synchronous serial interface: this provides the data link framing and terminates the WAN connection
Serial interfaces are used for WAN services like dedicated circuits (leased lines) and Frame Relay
DCE A CSU/DSU to terminate the carrier s leased-line connection: this provides the clocking and synchronization for the connection
Figure 25-2 shows an example of the equipment required for a leased-line connection The CSU/DSU is responsible for handling the
CSU/DSU
FIGURE 25-2
Leased line example
Router
CSU/DSU CO switch
CO switch
CSU/DSU CSU/DSU
Router
25: WAN Introduction
physical layer framing, clocking, and synchronization of the connection Common data link layer protocols you can use for dedicated connections include PPP and HDLC
Circuit-Switched Connections
Circuit-switched connections are dialup connections, like those that are used by a PC with a modem when dialing up an ISP Circuit-switched connections include the following types:
Asynchronous serial connections
These include analog modem dialup connections and the standard telephone system, which is commonly referred to as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) by the telephone carriers These include digital ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI) dialup connections; they provide guaranteed bandwidth
Synchronous serial connections
Asynchronous serial connections are the cheapest form of WAN services but are also the slowest and most unreliable of the services For instance, every time you make a connection using an analog modem, there is no guarantee of the connection rate you ll get With these connections, the top connection rate in the United States is 53 Kbps, but depending on the quality of the connection, you might get something as low as 300 bps In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) restricts analog data rates to 53 Kbps or less Other countries might support higher data rates The main problem with circuit-switched connections is that they are expensive if you need to make connections over long distances, with a per-minute charge that varies, depending on the destination: the more data you have to send, the more time it will take, and the more money it will cost Therefore, asynchronous circuitswitched connections are typically used for home office and low-speed backup connections, as well as temporary low-speed connections for additional boosts in bandwidth when your primary link becomes congested or when it fails With leased lines, as soon as the circuit is installed and you have configured your DTE, the line remains up unless there is a problem with the carrier s network or the DTE or DCE equipment This is different from circuit-switched connections, which are temporary you make a phone call to the remote DTE and when the line comes up, you transmit your data Once you are done transmitting your data, the phone connection is terminated
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