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Set to 01 for a challenge, 02 for the reply to a challenge, 03 for allowing the PPP connection, and 04 for denying the connection A local sequence number assigned by the challenger to distinguish among multiple authentication processes The random value used in the MD5 hash function The name of the challenging router (the server), which is used by the source to find the appropriate password to use for authentication
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Random number Router name
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Both sides then take the source s username, the matching password, and the challenge and run them through the MD5 hashing function The source then takes the result of this function and sends it to the destination The destination compares this value to the hashed output that it generated if the two values match, the password used by the source must have been the same as that which was used by the destination, and thus the destination will permit the connection
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Authentication commonly fails because administrators either don t match up the usernames and passwords (username command) on
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the two endpoints or they don t match up the authentication protocol (ppp authentication command)
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The following configuration shows how to set up two-way CHAP authentication:
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Router(config)# hostname your_router's_hostname Router(config)# username remote_hostname password matching_password Router(config)# interface type [slot_#/]port_# Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap
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Notice that this is the same configuration used with server-side PAP, with the exception of the omission of the sent username The only difference is that the chap parameter is specified in the ppp authentication command
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2505The CD contains a multimedia demonstration of configuring PPP authentication using CHAP on a router Actually, here is the full syntax of the PPP authentication command:
Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap|pap|ms-chap [chap|pap|ms-chap]
If you specify pap chap or chap pap, the router will negotiate both authentication parameters in the order that you specified them For example, if you configure chap pap, your router will first try to negotiate CHAP; if this fails, then it will negotiate PAP Microsoft has its own implementation of CHAP, which is not compatible with the RFC version of CHAP Therefore, if you are connecting to a Microsoft device, choose ms-chap for your authentication parameter
Troubleshooting Authentication
To determine whether authentication was successful, use the show interfaces command:
Router# show interfaces serial 0 Serial0 is up, line protocol is down Hardware is MCI Serial Internet address is 19216812 2552552550 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 254/255, load 1/255
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Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec) lcp state = ACKRCVD ncp ccp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp ipcp state = CLOSED ncp osicp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp ipxcp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp xnscp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp vinescp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp deccp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp bridgecp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp atalkcp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp lex state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp cdp state = CLOSED
Notice the lcp state in this example: it s not OPEN Also, notice the states for IP and CDP: CLOSED These things indicate that something is wrong with the LCP setup process, causing the data link layer to fail ( up, line protocol is down ) In this example, the CHAP passwords on the two routers didn t match
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2506The CD contains a multimedia demonstration of troubleshooting PPP authentication on a router Of course, looking at the preceding output, you don t really know that this was an authentication problem To determine this, use the debug ppp authentication command Here s an example of the use of this command with two-way CHAP authentication:
RouterA# debug ppp authentication %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up Se0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line Se0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING, by both Se0 CHAP: O CHALLENGE id 2 len 28 from "RouterA" Se0 CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 3 len 28 from "RouterB" Se0 CHAP: O RESPONSE id 3 len 28 from "RouterA" Se0 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 2 len 28 from "RouterB" Se0 CHAP: O SUCCESS id 2 len 4 Se0 CHAP: I SUCCESS id 3 len 4 %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up
In this example, notice that both routers RouterA and RouterB are using CHAP for authentication Both routers send a CHALLENGE, and both receive a corresponding RESPONSE Notice the I and O following Se0 CHAP:, which
indicates the direction of the CHAP message: I is for inbound and O is for outbound Following this is the status of the hashed passwords: SUCCESS And, last, you can see the data link layer coming up for the serial interface Here s an example of a router using PAP with two-way authentication:
RouterA# debug ppp authentication %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up Se0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line Se0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING, by both Se0 PAP: O AUTH-REQ id 2 len 18 from "RouterA" Se0 PAP: I AUTH-REQ id 3 len 18 from "RouterB" Se0 PAP: Authenticating peer RouterB Se0 PAP: O AUTH-ACK id 2 len 5 Se0 PAP: I AUTH-ACK id 3 len 5 %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up
In this example, notice that the authentication messages are different The AUTH-REQ shows the server requesting the authentication from a router, and the AUTH-ACK acknowledges the successful password matching by a router Notice that since both routers are requesting authentication, both routers are set up in server mode for PAP
PAP authentication sends the username and password across the wire in clear text CHAP doesn t send the password in clear text instead, a hashed value from the MD5 algorithm is sent Use the ppp authentication command to specify which PPP authentication method to useThe username command
allows you to build a local authentication table, which lists the remote names and passwords to use for authentication The debug ppp authentication command can help you troubleshoot PPP problems be familiar with the output of this command
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